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—This paper presents two-dimensional (2-D) VLSI digital filter structures possessing various symmetries in the filter magnitude response. For this purpose, four Type-1 and four Type-2 power-efficient and cost-effective 2-D magnitude symmetry filter architectures possessing diagonal, fourfold rotational, quadrantal, and octagonal symmetries with reduced(More)
Online reviews and ratings help consumers learn more about products. However, mixed findings have been found regarding the effects of ratings on consumer decision-making. Such lack of effect may be due to the limitation of single-dimensional ratings in transferring quality information. Since quality often comprises of multiple dimensions, some scholars have(More)
Online innovation contests-seekers posting innovation projects to which solvers submit solutions-have been used by more and more firms for idea seeking and problem solving. Most studies of contests take the perspective of innovation seekers, and little is known abo ut solvers' strategies and responses. However, contest performance relies on understanding of(More)