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Normal breathing is usually not sensed by the individual. Individuals become aware of their breathing at the cognitive level when breathing pattern is manipulated. Airway obstruction activates lung and muscle mechanoreceptors that project to the somatosensory cortex. Cortical neuronal activation in the somatosensory cortex by inspiratory occlusions can be(More)
The relationship between detection threshold of inspiratory resistive loads and the peaks of the respiratory-related evoked potential (RREP) is unknown. It was hypothesized that the short-latency and long-latency peaks of the RREP would only be elicited by inspiratory loads that exceeded the detection threshold. The detection threshold for inspiratory(More)
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a neural respiratory gating system using a paired stimuli paradigm. The N1 peak of the respiratory-related evoked potential (RREP) represents early perceptual processing of respiratory sensory information. This is similar to the N100 peak shown with tactile sensation, where the second peak amplitude (S2) of the(More)
Respiratory perception can be altered by changes in emotional or psychological states. This may be due to affective (i.e., anxiety) modulation of respiratory sensory gating. Nicotine withdrawal induces elevated anxiety and decreased somatosensory gating. Respiratory sensory gating is evidenced by decreased amplitude of the respiratory-related evoked(More)
Respiratory sensory gating is evidenced by decreased amplitudes of the respiratory-related evoked potentials (RREP) N1 peak for the second (S2) compared to the first occlusion (S1) when two paired occlusions are presented with a 500-millisecond (ms) inter-stimulus-interval during one inspiration. Because anxiety is prevalent in respiratory diseases and(More)
Previous studies demonstrated that anxiety considerably impacts the reported perceptions of respiratory sensations. A novel feature of the current study is exploring the impact of anxiety on the neural processing of respiratory sensations elicited by short inspiratory occlusions during different affective contexts. Using high-density EEG,(More)
OBJECTIVE Patients with respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease frequently experience respiratory sensations, which are often perceived as unpleasant or threatening. However, the accurate perception of respiratory sensations is important for the management and treatment of these diseases. Emotions can substantially(More)
The respiratory-related evoked potential (RREP) is increasingly used to study the neural processing of respiratory signals. However, little is known about the cortical origins of early (Nf, P1, N1) and later RREP components (P2, P3). By using high-density EEG, we studied cortical sources of RREP components elicited by short inspiratory occlusions in 18(More)
We tested the hypothesis that negative emotions decrease the respiratory-related evoked potentials (RREP) sensory gating (RSG). RREP were elicited by paired inspiratory occlusions. RSG was calculated as the difference in the averaged RREP peak N1 amplitude between the second (S2) and the first occlusion (S1). RSG was compared between unpleasant and neutral(More)
There has been evidence for the effect of anxiety on the neural processing of respiratory sensation using the respiratory-related evoked potentials (RREP) elicited by inspiratory occlusions. This study tested the RREP elicited by inspiratory occlusions in a group of outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and a group of healthy controls. We(More)