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To correctly analyze the effects of general anesthetics on their potential targets by large-scale molecular simulation, the structural parameters and partial atomic charges of the anesthetics are of determinant importance. Geometric optimizations using the Hartree–Fock and the B3LYP density functional theory methods with the large 6-311+G(2d,p) basis set(More)
Human placenta-derived mononuclear cells (MNC) were isolated by a Percoll density gradient and cultured in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) maintenance medium. The homogenous layer of adherent cells exhibited a typical fibroblast-like morphology, a large expansive potential, and cell cycle characteristics including a subset of quiescent cells. In vitro(More)
ELIC, the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel from Erwinia chrysanthemi, is a prototype for Cys-loop receptors. Here we show that acetylcholine is a competitive antagonist for ELIC. We determine the acetylcholine-ELIC cocrystal structure to a 2.9-Å resolution and find that acetylcholine binding to an aromatic cage at the subunit interface induces a(More)
Structural studies of polytopic membrane proteins are often hampered by the vagaries of these proteins in membrane mimetic environments and by the difficulties in handling them with conventional techniques. Designing and creating water-soluble analogues with preserved native structures offer an attractive alternative. We report here solution NMR studies of(More)
The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), assembled as homomeric pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, is one of the most abundant nAChR subtypes in the brain. Despite its importance in memory, learning and cognition, no structure has been determined for the α7 nAChR TM domain, a target for allosteric modulators. Using solution state NMR, we(More)
A three-dimensional model of the transmembrane domain of a neuronal-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), (alpha4)2(beta2)3, was constructed from a homology structure of the muscle-type nAChR recently determined by cryo-electron microscopy. The neuronal channel model was embedded in a fully hydrated DMPC lipid bilayer, and molecular-dynamics(More)
Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) are targets of general anesthetics, but a structural understanding of anesthetic action on pLGICs remains elusive. GLIC, a prokaryotic pLGIC, can be inhibited by anesthetics, including ketamine. The ketamine concentration leading to half-maximal inhibition of GLIC (58 μM) is comparable to that on neuronal(More)
The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has significant roles in nervous system function and disease. It is also a molecular target of general anesthetics. Anesthetics inhibit the α4β2 nAChR at clinically relevant concentrations, but their binding sites in α4β2 remain unclear. The recently determined NMR structures of the α4β2 nAChR transmembrane(More)
Region-specific cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of tissue water in the rat brain were quantified by high-field magnetic resonance imaging at 9.4 T in the rat suture occlusion model. Cerebral blood flow and ADC were compared during the short- (4.5 hours) and long-term (up to 6 days) reperfusion after 80 minutes of(More)
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is an important therapeutic target for a wide range of pathophysiological conditions, for which rational drug designs often require receptor structures at atomic resolution. Recent proof-of-concept studies demonstrated a water-solubilization approach to structure determination of membrane proteins by NMR (Slovic(More)