Pei Ling Yap

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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) showed substantial nucleotide sequence diversity distributed throughout the viral genome, with many variants showing only 68 to 79% overall sequence similarity to one another. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences derived from part of the gene encoding a non-structural protein (NS-5) has provided evidence for six major(More)
For many RNA viruses, relatively recent times of origin of extant viruses are implied by the high rate of substitution observed in longitudinal studies. However, extrapolation of short-term rates of substitution can give misleading estimates of times of divergence. We show here that the common ancestor of different types of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is older(More)
BACKGROUND A newly discovered DNA virus, transfusion-transmitted virus (TTV), has been implicated as a cause of post-transfusion hepatitis. We investigated the frequency of TTV viraemia in UK blood donors, and the extent to which TTV contaminates blood products such as factor VIII and IX clotting factors. We also investigated the possible aetiological role(More)
The frequency of infection with the six classified major genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was investigated in 447 infected volunteer blood donors from the following nine countries: Scotland, Finland, The Netherlands, Hungary, Australia, Egypt, Japan, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. Viral sequences in plasma from blood donors infected with HCV were amplified in(More)
We have analysed the pattern of nucleotide sequence variability in the 5' non-coding region (5' NCR) of geographically dispersed variants of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Phylogenetic analysis of sequences in this region indicated the existence of a new virus type, provisionally termed type 4, the identity of which was confirmed by further analysis of the more(More)
The long-term evolution of the hepatitis C virus hypervariable region (HVR) and flanking regions of the E1 and E2 envelope proteins have been studied in a cohort of women infected from a common source of anti-D immunoglobulin. Whereas virus sequences in the infectious source were relatively homogeneous, distinct HVR variants were observed in each anti-D(More)
OBJECTIVES Major thoracic surgery is associated with trauma-related immunological changes. These may impair anti-tumour immunity. We hypothesize that the reduced operative trauma associated with a video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) approach may decrease acute phase responses and, consequently, lead to better preservation of immune function. This(More)
BACKGROUND Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics by conjugation with glutathione. One of the mu class genes of this superfamily of enzymes, GSTM1, is polymorphic because of a partial gene deletion. This results in a failure to express GSTM1 in approximately 50% of individuals. Several studies have linked GSTM1(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe progression and survival of individuals infected with HIV by injecting drug use in Edinburgh. DESIGN AND METHODS From 313 HIV-infected patients with retrospectively estimated narrow seroconversion intervals, 260 infected via injecting drug use in the years 1983-1985 were selected for the study group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The(More)
Sequences obtained in the 5' non-coding region (5'NCR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) were obtained from Scottish blood donors and compared with previously published HCV sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of three distinct groups of sequences; two of these corresponded to the recently described HCV types 1 and 2 variants, while viral(More)