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For many RNA viruses, relatively recent times of origin of extant viruses are implied by the high rate of substitution observed in longitudinal studies. However, extrapolation of short-term rates of substitution can give misleading estimates of times of divergence. We show here that the common ancestor of different types of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is older(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) showed substantial nucleotide sequence diversity distributed throughout the viral genome, with many variants showing only 68 to 79% overall sequence similarity to one another. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences derived from part of the gene encoding a non-structural protein (NS-5) has provided evidence for six major(More)
Isolates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) show considerable nucleotide sequence variability throughout the genome. Comparisons of complete genome sequences have been used as the basis of classification of HCV into a number of genotypes that show 67 to 77% sequence similarity. In order to investigate whether sequence relationships between genotypes are equivalent(More)
BACKGROUND A newly discovered DNA virus, transfusion-transmitted virus (TTV), has been implicated as a cause of post-transfusion hepatitis. We investigated the frequency of TTV viraemia in UK blood donors, and the extent to which TTV contaminates blood products such as factor VIII and IX clotting factors. We also investigated the possible aetiological role(More)
Variation in the 5' non-coding region (5'NCR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was investigated in detail by comparing 314 5'NCR sequences of viruses of genotypes 1 to 6. Evidence was obtained for the existence of associations between particular 5'NCR sequence motifs and virus types and subtypes. No recombination was observed between the 5'NCR and coding regions(More)
We have analysed the pattern of nucleotide sequence variability in the 5' non-coding region (5' NCR) of geographically dispersed variants of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Phylogenetic analysis of sequences in this region indicated the existence of a new virus type, provisionally termed type 4, the identity of which was confirmed by further analysis of the more(More)
We examined how HLA types A1-B8-DR3 and B27 were related to progression of clinical disease and rate of loss of CD4 lymphocytes in the Edinburgh City Hospital cohort of HIV-positive patients, mainly injection drug users. Patients (n = 692) were prospectively followed from 1985 through March 1994. Accurately estimated seroconversion times were determined(More)
In a retrospective investigation of possible transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) by anti-rhesus D immunoglobulin (anti-D) in 1977, we compared variants infecting anti-D recipients in Ireland of one of the implicated batches with those of epidemiologically unrelated HCV-infected individuals. All 100 of the recipients of the batch investigated to date(More)
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detected specific hepatitis C viral (HCV) RNA sequences in plasma from 15 of 21 haemophiliacs (12 HCV-antibody positive) and 7 of 27 intravenous drug users (13 HCV-antibody positive). Quantification of RNA-positive samples showed high levels of HCV (10(5) to 10(6) copies of RNA/ml) in infected patients. HCV was more(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis G virus (HGV or GBV-C) is a newly discovered human flavivirus distantly related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Little information is available on its natural history or routes of transmission, although it can be transmitted parenterally. We investigated the prevalence of persistent infection of HGV and HCV in patients exposed to(More)