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The pore-forming alpha subunits of many ion channels are associated with auxiliary subunits that influence channel expression, targeting, and function. Several different auxiliary (beta) subunits for large conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels of the Slowpoke family have been reported, but none of these beta subunits is expressed extensively in(More)
Transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins are cation-selective channels that function in processes as diverse as sensation and vasoregulation. Mammalian TRP channels that are gated by heat and capsaicin (>43 degrees C; TRPV1 (ref. 1)), noxious heat (>52 degrees C; TRPV2 (ref. 2)), and cooling (< 22 degrees C; TRPM8 (refs 3, 4)) have been cloned; however,(More)
Brain sodium channels are complexes of a pore-forming alpha subunit with auxiliary beta subunits, which are transmembrane proteins that modulate alpha subunit function. The newly cloned beta3 subunit is shown to be expressed broadly in neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems, but not in glia and most nonneuronal cells. Beta1, beta2, and beta3(More)
The principal alpha subunit of voltage-gated sodium channels is associated with auxiliary beta subunits that modify channel function and mediate protein-protein interactions. We have identified a new beta subunit termed beta4. Like the beta1-beta3 subunits, beta4 contains a cleaved signal sequence, an extracellular Ig-like fold, a transmembrane segment, and(More)
The Kv4 A-type potassium currents contribute to controlling the frequency of slow repetitive firing and back-propagation of action potentials in neurons and shape the action potential in heart. Kv4 currents exhibit rapid activation and inactivation and are specifically modulated by K-channel interacting proteins (KChIPs). Here we report the discovery and(More)
Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a toxic gain of function mutation in the huntingtin gene (Htt). Silencing of Htt with RNA interference using direct CNS delivery in rodent models of Huntington's disease has been shown to reduce pathology and promote neuronal recovery. A key translational step for this(More)
Leukocytes are central regulators of inflammation and the target cells of therapies for key diseases, including autoimmune, cardiovascular, and malignant disorders. Efficient in vivo delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to immune cells could thus enable novel treatment strategies with broad applicability. In this report, we develop systemic delivery(More)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by altered bowel habits, persistent pain and discomfort, and typically colorectal hypersensitivity. Linaclotide, a peripherally restricted 14 aa peptide approved for the treatment of IBS with constipation, relieves constipation and reduces IBS-associated pain in these patients presumably by activation of(More)
The natural hormone uroguanylin regulates intestinal fluid homeostasis and bowel function through activation of guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C), resulting in increased intracellular cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP). We report the effects of uroguanylin-mediated activation of the GC-C/cGMP pathway in vitro on extracellular cGMP transport and in vivo in(More)
One possible treatment for Huntington's disease involves direct infusion of a small, interfering RNA (siRNA) designed to reduce huntingtin expression into brain tissue from a chronically implanted programmable pump. Here, we studied the suppression of huntingtin mRNA achievable with short infusion times, and investigated how long suppression may persist(More)