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The elevated plus-maze (EPM) test is one of the most commonly used behavioral assays to evaluate anxiety-related behavior in rodents. It is an economic test (5 min duration) without prior conditioning of the animals. The critical measure for anxiety is the time spent in the open arms of the maze. A confounding problem of the EPM is the so called one-trial(More)
River restoration has become a common measure to repair anthropogenically-induced alteration of fluvial ecosystems. The inherent complexity of ecohydrologic systems leads to limitations in understanding the response of such systems to restoration over time. Therefore, a significant effort has been dedicated in the recent years worldwide to document the(More)
Interleukin (IL)-2 regulates the immune response through the proliferation of activated T-cells and also exerts effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Alongside having marked neurobehavioral effects, IL-2 has been suggested to impact on various psychiatric disorders. The immune-CNS communication of IL-2 remains unclear, although, it is suggested that(More)
Peer-interactions are particularly important during adolescence and teenagers display enhanced sensitivity toward rejection by peers. Social rejection has been shown to induce alterations in pain perception in humans. However, the neurobiological consequences of adolescent social rejection have yet to be extensively characterized, and no appropriate animal(More)
Experiences of social rejection represent a major source of distress and in particular peer rejection during adolescence has been implicated in various psychiatric disorders. Moreover, experimentally induced acute social rejection alters pain perception in humans, implicating overlapping neurocircuits for social and physical pains. We recently demonstrated(More)
Oxytocin promotes social interactions and recognition of conspecifics that rely on olfaction in most species. The circuit mechanisms through which oxytocin modifies olfactory processing are incompletely understood. Here, we observed that optogenetically induced oxytocin release enhanced olfactory exploration and same-sex recognition of adult rats.(More)
Social affiliation is essential for many species and gains significant importance during adolescence. Disturbances in social affiliation, in particular social rejection experiences during adolescence, affect an individual's well-being and are involved in the emergence of psychiatric disorders. The underlying mechanisms are still unknown, partly because of a(More)
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