Peggy P Nelson

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The ATP-P2X(7) receptor subtype and a maitotoxin-activated ion channel were studied to determine factors which identify them as separate entities in the control of a cytotolytic pore. Activation of ATP-P2X(7) receptors with 2'-3'-O-(benzylbenzyl) ATP (BzATP) or maitotoxin ion channels resulted in influx of ethidium bromide and cell death. Maitotoxin (25-250(More)
Recent world events have highlighted the need for effective medical therapies for chemical weapon injuries. Of the chemical weapon agents, perhaps one of the most widely used, both historically and most recently in the Iran-Iraq War, is sulfur mustard (HD). No effective antidotes exist for this vesicant agent and, to this day, HD casualties are treated(More)
The effect of temperature on the development of sulphur mustard (HD)-induced toxicity was investigated in first passage cultures of human skin keratinocytes and on hairless guinea pig skin. When cells exposed to HD were incubated at 37 degrees C, a concentration-dependent decline in viability was observed that was maximal by 2 days. In contrast, no(More)
The cytotoxicity of the arsenical vesicant Lewisite was assessed in first passage cultures of proliferating neonatal human skin keratinocytes. Both munitions grade and distilled Lewisite were extremely toxic with LC(50) values in the low ng/ml range, with no significant differences between them. This similarity in toxicity was also mirrored with respect to(More)
The dependence of sulphur mustard (HD) toxicity on intracellular (pH(i)) and extracellular pH was examined in CHO-K1 cells. HD produced an immediate and significant concentration-dependent decline in cytosolic pH, and also inhibited the mechanisms responsible for restoring pH(i) to physiological values. The concentration-response of HD-induced cytosolic(More)
The role of primary blast in blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is controversial in part due to the technical difficulties of generating free-field blast conditions in the laboratory. The use of traditional shock tubes often results in artifacts, particularly of dynamic pressure, whereas the forces affecting the head are dependent on where the(More)
The effect of ionic environment on sulphur mustard (bis 2-chloroethyl sulphide; HD) toxicity was examined in CHO-K1 cells. Cultures were treated with HD in different ionic environments at constant osmolar conditions (320 mOsM, pH 7.4). The cultures were refed with fresh culture medium 1h after HD exposure, and viability was assessed. Little toxicity was(More)
OBJECTIVE The notion that cooling vesicant-exposed tissue may ameliorate or prevent resultant injury is not a novel concept. During both World Wars, studies were conducted that investigated this potential mode of therapy with sulfur mustard and seemed to conclude that there might be merit in pursuing this research direction. However, it does not appear that(More)
Maitotoxin (MTX) is one of the most potent toxins known to date. It causes massive calcium (Ca(2+)) influx and necrotic cell death in various tissues. However, the exact mechanism(s) underlying its cellular toxicity is not fully understood. In the present study, the role of the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE) in MTX-induced increases in intracellular Ca(2+)(More)
The highly potent marine toxin maitotoxin (MTX) evoked an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in fura-2 loaded rat aortic smooth muscle cells, which was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+). This increase was almost fully inhibited by KB-R7943, a potent selective inhibitor of the reverse mode of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX). Cell viability was assessed(More)
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