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BACKGROUND Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by susceptibility to candida infection of skin, nails, and mucous membranes. Patients with recessive CMC and autoimmunity have mutations in the autoimmune regulator AIRE. The cause of autosomal dominant CMC is unknown. METHODS We evaluated 14 patients from five families with autosomal(More)
Sensenbrenner syndrome/cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is an autosomal-recessive disease that is characterized by craniosynostosis and ectodermal and skeletal abnormalities. We sequenced the exomes of two unrelated CED patients and identified compound heterozygous mutations in WDR35 as the cause of the disease in each of the two patients independently,(More)
The per-generation mutation rate in humans is high. De novo mutations may compensate for allele loss due to severely reduced fecundity in common neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diseases, explaining a major paradox in evolutionary genetic theory. Here we used a family based exome sequencing approach to test this de novo mutation hypothesis in ten(More)
Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a genetically heterogeneous retinal disorder characterized by abnormal vascularisation of the peripheral retina, often accompanied by retinal detachment. To date, mutations in three genes (FZD4, LRP5, and NDP) have been shown to be causative for FEVR. In two large Dutch pedigrees segregating autosomal-dominant(More)
Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen causing mucosal and systemic infections. However, human antifungal immunity remains poorly defined. Here by integrating transcriptional analysis and functional genomics, we identified Candida-specific host defence mechanisms in humans. Candida induced significant expression of genes from the type I(More)
Schinzel-Giedion syndrome is characterized by severe mental retardation, distinctive facial features and multiple congenital malformations; most affected individuals die before the age of ten. We sequenced the exomes of four affected individuals (cases) and found heterozygous de novo variants in SETBP1 in all four. We also identified SETBP1 mutations in(More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR)10 is the only pattern-recognition receptor without known ligand specificity and biological function. We demonstrate that TLR10 is a modulatory receptor with mainly inhibitory effects. Blocking TLR10 by antagonistic antibodies enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production, including IL-1β, specifically after exposure to TLR2 ligands.(More)
Massively parallel sequencing has tremendous diagnostic potential but requires enriched templates for sequencing. Here we report the validation of an array-based sequence capture method in genetically heterogeneous disorders. The model disorder selected was AR ataxia, using five subjects with known mutations and two unaffected controls. The genomic(More)
Autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxias comprise a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast to their dominant counterparts, unraveling the molecular background of these ataxias has proven to be more complicated and the currently known mutations provide incomplete coverage for genotyping of patients. By(More)
A rotating annular reactor (Roto Torque) was used for qualitative and quantitative studied on biofilm heterogeneity. In contrast to the classic image of biofilms as smooth, homogeneous layers of biomass on a substratum, studies using various pure and mixed cultures consistently revealed more-dimensional structures that resembled dunes and ridges, among(More)