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Eukaryotic cytosine methylation represses transcription but also occurs in the bodies of active genes, and the extent of methylation biology conservation is unclear. We quantified DNA methylation in 17 eukaryotic genomes and found that gene body methylation is conserved between plants and animals, whereas selective methylation of transposons is not. We show(More)
Parent-of-origin-specific (imprinted) gene expression is regulated in Arabidopsis thaliana endosperm by cytosine demethylation of the maternal genome mediated by the DNA glycosylase DEMETER, but the extent of the methylation changes is not known. Here, we show that virtually the entire endosperm genome is demethylated, coupled with extensive local non-CG(More)
Imprinted genes are expressed primarily or exclusively from either the maternal or paternal allele, a phenomenon that occurs in flowering plants and mammals. Flowering plant imprinted gene expression has been described primarily in endosperm, a terminal nutritive tissue consumed by the embryo during seed development or after germination. Imprinted(More)
Cytosine methylation silences transposable elements in plants, vertebrates, and fungi but also regulates gene expression. Plant methylation is catalyzed by three families of enzymes, each with a preferred sequence context: CG, CHG (H = A, C, or T), and CHH, with CHH methylation targeted by the RNAi pathway. Arabidopsis thaliana endosperm, a placenta-like(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between body mass index (BMI), Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF), and levels of physical activity (PA) from sedentary to very vigorous intensities, measured by accelerometry, in students from a middle and high school. METHODS This cross-sectional study included 111 children and adolescents,(More)
BACKGROUND Creating an optimal environment at recess may be necessary to maximize physical activity (PA) participation in youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the initial effectiveness of an elementary school recess intervention on the amount of moderate PA (MPA) and vigorous PA (VPA) during recess and the school day. METHODS This(More)
The purpose of this study was twofold: first to document the gender differences in Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) according to two epoch systems (5 vs. 60 s) in preschoolers, and, second to document the differences in physical activity (PA) patterns according to two different epoch choices. The sample comprised 59 preschoolers (31 girls) aged(More)
The aims of this study were (1) to document differences in physical activity (both total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) between the sexes on weekdays and weekend days in preschoolers, and (2) to assess compliance with recommendations for total physical activity (National Association for Sport and Physical Education guidelines) and(More)
Spoofing detection is a challenging task in biometric systems, when differentiating illegitimate users from genuine ones. Although iris scans are far more inclusive than fingerprints, and also more precise for person authentication, iris recognition systems are vulnerable to spoofing via textured cosmetic contact lenses. Iris spoofing detection is also(More)
Vaccinia virus (VV) triggers a mitogenic signal at an early stage of infection. VV-induced proto-oncogene c-fos mRNA with kinetics paralleling that stimulated by serum. The VV virokine, or vaccinia virus growth factor (VGF), was not crucial for c-fos induction because it was observed upon infection with the virokine-minus mutant VV (VGF(-)). Furthermore,(More)