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This paper makes several contributions to the growing literature on the economics of religion. First, we explicitly introduce spatial-location models into the economics of religion. Second, we offer a new explanation for the observed tendency of state (monopoly) churches to locate toward the " low-tension " end of the " strictness continuum " (in a(More)
The Portuguese population enjoys good health and increasing life expectancy, though at lower levels than other western European countries. All residents in Portugal have access to health care provided by the National Health Service (NHS), financed mainly through taxation. Co-payments have been increasing over time, and the level of cost-sharing is highest(More)
We develop a model of waiting lists for public hospitals when physicians deliver both private and public treatment. Public treatment is free but rationed, i.e., only cases meeting some medical criteria area admitted for treatment. Private treatment has no waiting time but entails payment of a fee. Both physicians and patients take into account that each(More)
We estimate the impact of extra health insurance coverage beyond a National Health System on the demand for several health services. Traditionally, the literature has tried to deal with the endogeneity of the private (extra) insurance decision by finding instrumental variables. Since a priori instrumental variables are hard to find we take a different(More)
For many years, evidence from the USA has pointed out to the existence of upcoding in management practices. Upcoding is defined as classifying patients in diagnosis-related groups codes associated with larger payments. The incentive for upcoding is not restricted to private providers of care. Conceptually, any patient classification system that is used for(More)
People vote although their marginal gain from voting is zero. We contribute to the resolution of this paradox by presenting a model for equilibrium configuration of attitudes regarding the decision to vote. Each individual is seen as an element of a social network, within which pairs of individuals express ideas and attitudes, exerting mutual influence. We(More)
The financial rescue plan for the Portuguese economy details a number of adjustments to be made in the National Health Service. We review the changes on user charges. The requirement of the rescue plan on user charges is twofold: structure of user charges and the levels of user charges. Adoption of measures occurred within the timeframe required. The first(More)
We test the effect of a change in the sex ratio on marital assortative matching by social class using a large negative exogenous shock to the French male population due to WWI casualties. We analyze a novel data set that links marriage-level data to both French censuses of population and regional data on military mortality. We instrument the sex ratio in a(More)