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One of the major unsolved problems of modern biology is deep understanding of the complex relationship between the information encoded in the genome of an organism and the phenotypic properties manifested by that organism. Fundamental advances must be made before we can begin to approach the goal of predicting the phenotypic consequences of a given mutation(More)
Robustness of organisms is widely observed although difficult to precisely characterize. Performance can remain nearly constant within some neighborhood of the normal operating regime, leading to homeostasis, but then abruptly break down with pathological consequences beyond this neighborhood. Currently, there is no generic approach to identifying(More)
BACKGROUND The NADPH redox cycle plays a key role in antioxidant protection of human erythrocytes. It consists of two enzymes: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and glutathione reductase. Over 160 G6PD variants have been characterized and associated with several distinct clinical manifestations. However, the mechanistic link between the genotype and(More)
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) metabolism in human erythrocytes has been thoroughly investigated, but unclear points persist. By integrating the available data into a mathematical model that accurately represents the current understanding and comparing computational predictions to observations we sought to (a) identify inconsistencies in present knowledge, (b)(More)
Calligraphic interfaces mimic the interaction of users with pen and paper, to which most persons are used to from an early age. This makes them a privileged way of interacting with computers in efficient and natural ways. One of the tasks more often made with pen and paper is to write and correct text documents. This is done resorting to several symbols(More)
H2O2 elimination in human erythrocytes is mainly carried out by catalase (Cat), glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) and the more recently discovered peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2). However, the contribution of Prx2 to H2O2 consumption is still unclear. Prx2's high reactivity with H2O2 (kPrx2=10×10(7) M(-1)s(-1), kCat =7×10(7) M(-1)s(-1), kGPx1 =4×10(7) M(-1)s(-1)) and(More)
In human erythrocytes H2O2 is mainly consumed by glutathione peroxidase, catalase and peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2). Our previous analyses indicate that Prx2's peroxidase activity is subjected to a strong but quickly reversible inhibition (see companion abstract). If this activity is inhibited then the main role of Prx2 cannot be to eliminate H2O2. What functional(More)
Cells are occasionally exposed to high H2O2 concentrations, often preceding exposure to other electrophylic compounds. Both H2O2 and these compounds can irreversibly modify protein thiols, with deleterious consequences. Induction of enzymatic defenses against those agents is too slow to avoid significant damage. Cells may solve this conundrum by reversibly(More)
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