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INTRODUCTION Hypercapnic coma secondary to acute respiratory failure (ARF) is considered to be a contraindication to the use of treatment with noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV). However, intubation exposes these patients to the risk of complications such as nosocomial pneumonia, sepsis, and even death. PATIENTS AND METHODS We performed a(More)
Height growth of 19 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in Germany, Austria and Finland, for which long-term records of foliar nutrient levels were available, was assessed retrospectively by stem analyses and compared with data from regionally applied yield tables as references. Gridded historical time series of monthly(More)
The reactions of organic azides and alkynes catalysed by copper species represent the prototypical examples of click chemistry. The so-called CuAAC reaction (copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition), discovered in 2002, has been expanded since then to become an excellent tool in organic synthesis. In this contribution the recent results described in the(More)
In spite of its large availability in natural or shale gas deposits, the use of methane in the chemical industry as feedstock from a synthetic point of view yet constitutes a challenge in modern chemistry. Only the production of the so-called syngas, a mixture of CO and H2 derived from the complete cleavage of the methane molecule, operates at the(More)
3.1. The Reaction 3381 3.2. The Catalysts and the Carbene Source 3381 3.3. Achievements 3383 3.4. Selectivity and Mechanistic Considerations 3386 3.5. Future Development 3386 4. C-H Bond Functionalization by Nitrene Insertion 3387 4.1. The Reaction 3387 4.2. The Catalysts and the Nitrene Sources 3387 4.3. Development and Mechanistic Considerations 3388 4.4.(More)
The direct functionalization of low reactive C(sp(3))-H and C(sp(2))-H bonds of alkanes and arenes, respectively, by metal-induced carbene transfer from diazo compounds is reviewed. To date, this methodology has enabled the incorporation of CR(1)R(2) moieties from N2[double bond, length as m-dash]CR(1)R(2) in a chemo, regio, enantio or diastereoselective(More)
A series of catalysts of general formula TpXCu (TpX = homoscorpionate ligand) promote the insertion of :CHCO2Et (ethyl diazoacetate as the carbene source) into the C-H bonds of cycloalkanes and cyclic ethers in moderate to high yield. A correlation between the steric hindrance of these catalysts and the yield of the transformation has been observed.
The dehydrogenation of n-hexane and cycloalkanes giving n-hexene and cycloalkenes has been observed in the reaction of such hydrocarbons with hydrogen peroxide, in the presence of copper complexes bearing trispyrazolylborate ligands. This catalytic transformation provides the typical oxidation products (alcohol and ketones) with small amounts of the(More)