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Cellular apoptosis induced by hyperglycemia occurs in many vascular cells and is crucial for the initiation of diabetic pathologies. In the retina, pericyte apoptosis and the formation of acellular capillaries, the most specific vascular pathologies attributed to hyperglycemia, is linked to the loss of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-mediated survival(More)
Insulin resistance has been associated with the progression of chronic kidney disease in both diabetes and obesity. In order to determine the cellular mechanisms contributing to this, we characterized insulin signaling in renal tubules and glomeruli during diabetic and insulin-resistant states using streptozotocin-diabetic and Zucker fatty-insulin-resistant(More)
The most common invasive mammals—mice, rats, and cats—have been introduced to islands around the world, where they continue to negatively affect native biodiversity. The eradication of those invasive mammals has had positive effects on many species of seabirds. However, the removal of one invasive mammal species may result in abundance changes of other(More)
To characterize glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 signaling and its effect on renal endothelial dysfunction and glomerulopathy. We studied the expression and signaling of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) on glomerular endothelial cells and the novel finding of protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of c-Raf at Ser259 and its inhibition of angiotensin II (Ang II)(More)
Both cardio- and microvascular complications adversely affect the life quality of patients with diabetes and have been the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in this population. Cardiovascular pathologies of diabetes have an effect on microvenules, arteries, and myocardium. It is believed that hyperglycemia is one of the most important metabolic(More)
To determine whether insulin action on endothelial cells promotes or protects against atherosclerosis, we generated apolipoprotein E null mice in which the insulin receptor gene was intact or conditionally deleted in vascular endothelial cells. Insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, plasma lipids, and blood pressure were not different between the two(More)
Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is a representative mediator of antioxidants and cytoprotectants against various stress stimuli including oxidants in vascular cells. Intensive insulin treatment can delay the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy and other vascularopathies, yet little is known about insulin regulation of anti-apoptotic and antioxidant(More)
Mammalian MafA/RIPE3b1 is an important glucose-responsive transcription factor that regulates function, maturation, and survival of beta-cells. Increased expression of MafA results in improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and beta-cell function. Because MafA is a highly phosphorylated protein, we examined whether regulating activity of protein(More)
OBJECTIVE Restenosis is a major limitation of percutaneous coronary intervention. Migration and proliferation of vascular cells remain a cornerstone in neointimal formation. The cardioprotection of estrogen is well recognized, but the intracellular mechanisms related to these beneficial effects are not completely understood. METHODS AND RESULTS We(More)
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for Ig class switch recombination, a process that introduces DNA double-strand breaks in B cells. We show in this study that AID associates with the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) promoting cell survival, presumably by resolving DNA double-strand breaks. Wild-type cells(More)