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2 By agreement of all authors the names of the second through sixth authors are presented in alphabetical order Abstract Specific plant associations may decrease (associational resistance, AR) or increase (associational susceptibility, AS) the likelihood of detection by, and/or vulnerability to, herbivores. We discuss presumed mechanisms leading to AR and(More)
Based on an engagement perspective of reading development, we investigated the extent to which an instructional framework of combining motivation support and strategy instruction (Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction—CORI) influenced reading outcomes for third-grade children. In CORI, five motivational practices were integrated with six cognitive strategies(More)
VEGF and TGF-β1 are cytokines that stimulate tissue invasion and angiogenesis. These factors are considered as molecular targets for the therapy of glioblastoma. Bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody developed against VEGF, inhibits endothelial cell proliferation and vessel formation. Flavonoids obtained from Dimorphandra mollis and(More)
Research on how morphology, behavior, and life histories of insects determine their susceptibility to parasitism has primarily focused on the traits of single host species. Very little research has been conducted attempting to determine if similarities or differences in the traits of co-occurring species, on a single plant or in a habitat, influence levels(More)
Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the effects of(More)
Power providers have started replacing traditional electricity meters for Smart Meters, which can transmit current power consumption levels to the provider within short intervals. Based on this data, power providers can perform and improve many service activities such as differential tariffs and load predictions. However, this also threatens consumers'(More)
Parasitoids developing within tobacco hornworms or fall army-worms exhibit significant differences in development and survival depending on whether their hosts fed on nicotine-free or nicotine-containing diets. The effects of nicotine were more severe on the relatively less adapted parasitoid,H. annulipes than the specialist parasitoid,Cotesia congregata.(More)
The significance of nicotine in the three trophic level interaction involving tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta), and the parasitoidCotesia congregata was investigated in field plots of two varieties of tobacco which had about a 10-fold difference in their nicotine content. WhileM. sexta mortality, rates of parasitism byC.(More)
Field studies of dispersal by first instar gypsy moth larvae indicate that almost all larvae undergo an initial dispersal episode. However, in laboratory studies large larvae (from large eggs) disperse more frequently than small larvae (from small eggs) in the presence of favored food. Large larvae may be better adapted for dispersal. When larvae encounter(More)
Two species of lepidopteran herbivores, Manduca sexta (Sphingidae) and Trichoplusia ni (Noctuidae), were reared on synthetic diet containing either the alkaloid nicotine or the flavonoid rutin. Survival and pupal weight of the specialist M. sexta did not differ when larvae were reared on diet containing nicotine or rutin. In contrast, the generalist T. ni(More)