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Plant growth responses following colonization with different isolates of a single species of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus can range from highly beneficial to detrimental, but the reasons for this high within-species diversity are currently unknown. To examine whether differences in growth and nutritional benefits are related to the phosphate (P)(More)
Awareness to users is a valuable feature of a collaborative system. Therefore, the designers of a system of this type may find it useful to receive hints on the awareness support provided by the system when it is under development or evolution. This paper proposes a tool for their use to obtain suggestions on the awareness features provided by the system(More)
This paper discusses the negotiation-collaboration process: a binomial process mixing collaboration, negotiation and argumentation. We applied the negotiation-collaboration process to Formal Technical Reviews, commonly adopted to verify the functional specification of software. We developed a groupware tool demonstrating the dynamic of the(More)
This paper proposes a novel architectural framework handling effective unexpected exceptions in workflow management systems (WfMS). Effective unexpected exceptions are events for which the organizations lack handling strategies. Unstructured human interventions are necessary to overcome these situations, but clash with the type of model control currently(More)
Collaborative systems evaluation is necessary in several situations. However, evaluation is frequently done in an ad-hoc manner or not at all. This paper presents a survey of evaluation methods for groupware systems. The analysis, comparison and classification of these methods will help developers choose the appropriate methods for their situation.(More)
Middleware supporting the development of distributed systems has been produced since the beginnings of the Internet. With the emergence of mobile computing new requirements for this kind of middleware arise since the scenario for mobile computing is very different from the desktop computing one. Nowadays, because increasing ubiquitous computing, new(More)
We propose a groupware tool supporting the Software Quality Function Deployment approach to software requirements validation. The design challenge is to involve several stakeholders, having conflicting views and attitudes which may be difficult to reconcile, in the requirements validation. The adopted approach integrates collaboration and negotiation(More)