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In the exocytosis of neurotransmitter, fusion pore opening represents the first instant of fluid contact between the vesicle lumen and extracellular space. The existence of the fusion pore has been established by electrical measurements, but its molecular composition is unknown. The possibility that synaptotagmin regulates fusion pores was investigated with(More)
Synaptotagmin-IV (syt-IV) is a membrane trafficking protein that influences learning and memory, but its localization and role in synaptic function remain unclear. We found that syt-IV localized to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-containing vesicles in hippocampal neurons. Syt-IV/BDNF-harboring vesicles underwent exocytosis in both axons and(More)
Synaptotagmin I (Syt I), the putative Ca(2+) sensor in regulated exocytosis, has two Ca(2+)-binding modules, the C2A and C2B domains, and a number of putative effectors to which Syt I binds in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion. The role of Ca(2+) binding to these domains remains unclear, as efforts to address questions about Ca(2+)-triggered effector interactions(More)
Exocytosis-the release of the contents of a vesicle--proceeds by two mechanisms. Full fusion occurs when the vesicle and plasma membranes merge. Alternatively, in what is termed kiss-and-run, vesicles can release transmitter during transient contacts with the plasma membrane. Little is known at the molecular level about how the choice between these two(More)
BACKGROUND Although cigarette smoking is considered to be the most important cause of lung cancer, smoking behaviour cannot fully explain the epidemiological characteristics of lung cancer in Taiwanese women, who rarely smoke but contract lung cancer relatively often. There are other causes of lung cancer that have produced variability in lung cancer(More)
Synaptotagmin-IV (syt-IV) is a membrane trafficking protein that influences learning and memory, but its localization and role in synaptic function remain unclear. Here we discovered that syt-IV localizes to BDNF-containing vesicles in hippocampal neurons. Syt-IV/BDNF-harboring vesicles undergo exocytosis in both axons and dendrites, and syt-IV inhibits(More)
Voltage-sensitive-dye imaging was used to study the initiation and propagation of epileptiform activity in transverse hippocampal slices. A portion of the slices tested generated epileptiform discharges in response to electrical shocks under normal physiological conditions. The fraction of slices showing epileptiform responses increased from 44 to 86% when(More)
BACKGROUND In neonatal binocular animals, the developing retina displays patterned spontaneous activity termed retinal waves, which are initiated by a single class of interneurons (starburst amacrine cells, SACs) that release neurotransmitters. Although SACs are shown to regulate wave dynamics, little is known regarding how altering the proteins involved in(More)
Although LTP (long-term potentiation) of synaptic transmission has received much attention as a model for learning and memory, its function within a neural circuit context remains poorly understood. To monitor LTP over an extensive circuit, we imaged responses in hippocampal slices using a voltage-sensitive dye. Following theta-burst stimulation, evoked(More)
The risk of colorectal cancer is known to be increased in patients with long-standing schistosomal colitis. A retrospective review of clinical data and surgical specimens from 60 patients with schistosomal granulomatous disease of the large intestine but without carcinoma demonstrated that 36 of them had mild to severe grades of colonic epithelial(More)