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BACKGROUND Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recent studies using populations from the United States and Australia have demonstrated that AMD is associated with mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroups (as defined by combinations of mtDNA polymorphisms) that represent Northern(More)
Diabetic retinopathy remains the leading vascular-associated cause of blindness throughout the world. Its treatment requires a multidisciplinary interventional approach at both systemic and local levels. Current management includes laser photocoagulation, intravitreal steroids, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment along with systemic(More)
The geographic origins of populations can be identified by their maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups. This study compared human cybrids (cytoplasmic hybrids), which are cell lines with identical nuclei but mitochondria from different individuals with mtDNA from either the H haplogroup or L haplogroup backgrounds. The most common(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in developed countries. While linked to genetic polymorphisms in the complement pathway, there are many individuals with high risk alleles that do not develop AMD, suggesting that other 'modifiers' may be involved. Mitochondrial (mt) haplogroups, defined by accumulations of specific(More)
BACKGROUND It has been recognized that cells do not respond equally to ultraviolet (UV) radiation but it is not clear whether this is due to genetic, biochemical or structural differences of the cells. We have a novel cybrid (cytoplasmic hybrids) model that allows us to analyze the contribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to cellular response after(More)
PURPOSE. The authors recently reported that Foxp3(+)CD4(+) CD25(+(Bright)) "natural" regulatory T cells (nT(reg) cells) are abundant in rabbit conjunctiva and suppress herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) effector T cells (T(eff) cells). However, little is known about the overall regulatory mechanisms of these nT(reg) cells. The authors(More)
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 are medically significant pathogens. The development of an effective HSV vaccine remains a global public health priority. HSV-1 and HSV-2 immunodominant "asymptomatic" antigens (ID-A-Ags), which are strongly recognized by B and T cells from seropositive healthy asymptomatic individuals, may be critical to be included(More)
PURPOSE Our goal was to identify the cellular and molecular effects of 2-ethylpyridine (2-EP, a component of cigarette smoke) on human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS ARPE-19 cells were exposed to varying concentrations of 2-EP. Cell viability (CV) was measured by a trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Caspase-3/7(More)
PURPOSE To identify inhibitors that could effectively lower reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), complement and inflammatory cytokine levels induced by Benzo(e)pyrene [B(e)p], an element of cigarette smoke, in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) in vitro. METHODS ARPE-19 cells were treated for 24 hours with 200 μM, 100 μM, and 50 μM(More)
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