Pavlos Pissios

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Mice fed a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) exhibit marked changes in hepatic metabolism and energy homeostasis. Here, we identify liver-derived fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) as an endocrine regulator of the ketotic state. Hepatic expression and circulating levels of FGF21 are induced by both KD and fasting, are rapidly suppressed by(More)
A wide range of xenobiotic compounds are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, and the genes that encode these enzymes are often induced in the presence of such compounds. Here, we show that the nuclear receptor CAR can recognize response elements present in the promoters of xenobiotic-responsive CYP genes, as well as other novel sites. CAR has(More)
Leptin is an adipose-derived hormone that acts on hypothalamic leptin receptors to regulate energy balance. Leptin receptors are also expressed in extrahypothalamic sites including the ventral tegmental area (VTA), critical to brain reward circuitry. We report that leptin targets DA and GABA neurons of the VTA, inducing phosphorylation of(More)
Ketogenic diets have been used as an approach to weight loss on the basis of the theoretical advantage of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet. To evaluate the physiological and metabolic effects of such diets on weight we studied mice consuming a very-low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (KD). This diet had profound effects on energy balance and gene expression.(More)
In an effort to identify novel candidate regulators of adipogenesis, gene profiling of differentiating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was analyzed using a novel algorithm. We report here the characterization of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) as a novel regulator of adipogenesis. XOR lies downstream of C/EBPbeta and upstream of PPARgamma, in the cascade of factors that(More)
BACKGROUND The hypothalamic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) plays a critical role in energy homeostasis. Abundant expression of the MCH receptor is observed outside the hypothalamus, especially in the dorsal and the ventral striatum, raising the possibility that MCH modulates the function of the midbrain dopamine neurons and associated(More)
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction-site maps for six species (10 strains) of the Drosophila montium subgroup were established. A total of 50 restriction sites were mapped, corresponding to 1.67% of the mtDNA genome. On the basis of differences in the restriction sites, nucleotide divergence (delta) was calculated for each pair of species (strains), and(More)
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide. At least one receptor, MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1), is present in all mammals and is expressed widely throughout the brain, including cortex, striatum and structures implicated in the integration of olfactory cues such as the piriform cortex and olfactory bulb. Consistent with a(More)
Ingestion of very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KD) is associated with weight loss, lowering of glucose and insulin levels and improved systemic insulin sensitivity. However, the beneficial effects of long-term feeding have been the subject of debate. We therefore studied the effects of lifelong consumption of this diet in mice. Complete metabolic(More)
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic peptide originally identified as a 17-amino-acid circulating hormone in teleost fish, where it is secreted by the pituitary in response to stress and environmental stimuli. In fish, MCH lightens skin color by stimulating aggregation of melanosomes, pigment-containing granules in melanophores, cells of(More)