Learn More
The mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) responds both to stretching of the cell membrane and to membrane depolarization. The crystal structure at 3.9 angstroms resolution demonstrates that Escherichia coli MscS folds as a membrane-spanning heptamer with a large cytoplasmic region. Each subunit contains three transmembrane helices (TM1, -2,(More)
Human transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a member of a large family of enzymes that catalyze protein crosslinking, plays an important role in the extracellular matrix biology of many tissues and is implicated in the gluten-induced pathogenesis of celiac sprue. Although vertebrate transglutaminases have been studied extensively, thus far all structurally(More)
Neurexins and neuroligins provide trans-synaptic connectivity by the Ca2+-dependent interaction of their alternatively spliced extracellular domains. Neuroligins specify synapses in an activity-dependent manner, presumably by binding to neurexins. Here, we present the crystal structures of neuroligin-1 in isolation and in complex with neurexin-1 beta.(More)
Synchronous neurotransmission is triggered when Ca(2+) binds to synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1), a synaptic-vesicle protein that interacts with SNAREs and membranes. We used single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between synaptotagmin's two C2 domains to determine that their conformation consists of multiple states with occasional transitions,(More)
The concentration of detergent in membrane protein preparations can have a critical role on protein stability, function, and the potential for crystallization. Unfortunately, dialysis or protein concentration can lead to an unknown amount of detergent in the final membrane protein preparations. Here we present a method for the determination of detergent(More)
Target-mediated clearance and high antigen load can hamper the efficacy and dosage of many antibodies. We show for the first time that the mouse, cynomolgus, and human cross-reactive, antagonistic anti-proprotein convertase substilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) antibodies J10 and the affinity-matured and humanized J16 exhibit target-mediated clearance, resulting(More)
The structure of the "cab"-type beta class carbonic anhydrase from the archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (Cab) has been determined to 2.1-A resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction phasing technique. Cab exists as a dimer with a subunit fold similar to that observed in "plant"-type beta class carbonic anhydrases. The active(More)
In neurons, SNAREs, synaptotagmin and other factors catalyze Ca(2+)-triggered fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane. The molecular mechanism of this process, especially the interaction between synaptotagmin and SNAREs, remains an enigma. Here we characterized this interaction by single-molecule fluorescence microscopy and crystallography. The two(More)
The gene encoding the dipeptidyl peptidase-like protein DPP6 (also known as DPPX) has been associated with human neural disease. However, until recently no function had been found for this protein. It has been proposed that DPP6 is an auxiliary subunit of neuronal Kv4 K(+) channels, the ion channels responsible for the somato-dendritic A-type K(+) current,(More)
Proprotein convertase substilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) promotes the degradation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) and thereby increases serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). We have developed a humanized monoclonal antibody that recognizes the LDLR binding domain of PCSK9. This antibody, J16, and its precursor mouse antibody, J10, potently inhibit(More)