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The mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) responds both to stretching of the cell membrane and to membrane depolarization. The crystal structure at 3.9 angstroms resolution demonstrates that Escherichia coli MscS folds as a membrane-spanning heptamer with a large cytoplasmic region. Each subunit contains three transmembrane helices (TM1, -2,(More)
The concentration of detergent in membrane protein preparations can have a critical role on protein stability, function, and the potential for crystallization. Unfortunately, dialysis or protein concentration can lead to an unknown amount of detergent in the final membrane protein preparations. Here we present a method for the determination of detergent(More)
It has recently been reported that dipeptidyl aminopeptidase X (DPPX) interacts with the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv4 and that co-expression of DPPX together with Kv4 pore forming alpha-subunits, and potassium channel interacting proteins (KChIPs), reconstitutes properties of native A-type potassium channels in vitro. Here we report the X-ray crystal(More)
Human transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a member of a large family of enzymes that catalyze protein crosslinking, plays an important role in the extracellular matrix biology of many tissues and is implicated in the gluten-induced pathogenesis of celiac sprue. Although vertebrate transglutaminases have been studied extensively, thus far all structurally(More)
Neurexins and neuroligins provide trans-synaptic connectivity by the Ca2+-dependent interaction of their alternatively spliced extracellular domains. Neuroligins specify synapses in an activity-dependent manner, presumably by binding to neurexins. Here, we present the crystal structures of neuroligin-1 in isolation and in complex with neurexin-1 beta.(More)
Proprotein convertase substilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) promotes the degradation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) and thereby increases serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). We have developed a humanized monoclonal antibody that recognizes the LDLR binding domain of PCSK9. This antibody, J16, and its precursor mouse antibody, J10, potently inhibit(More)
Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) are a therapeutic class offering promise for cancer therapy. The attachment of cytotoxic drugs to antibodies can result in an effective therapy with better safety potential than nontargeted cytotoxics. To understand the role of conjugation site, we developed an enzymatic method for site-specific antibody drug conjugation(More)
Target-mediated clearance and high antigen load can hamper the efficacy and dosage of many antibodies. We show for the first time that the mouse, cynomolgus, and human cross-reactive, antagonistic anti-proprotein convertase substilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) antibodies J10 and the affinity-matured and humanized J16 exhibit target-mediated clearance, resulting(More)
We describe the heterologous expression in Escherichia coli of the proenzyme precursor to EP-B2, a cysteine endoprotease from germinating barley seeds. High yields (50 mg/l) of recombinant proEP-B2 were obtained from E. coli inclusion bodies in shake flask cultures following purification and refolding. The zymogen was rapidly autoactivated to its mature(More)
It remains unclear whether gammadelta T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) detect antigens in a way similar to antibodies or alphabeta TCRs. Here we show that reactivity between the G8 and KN6 gammadelta TCRs and the major histocompatibility complex class Ib molecule T22 could be recapitulated, with retention of wild-type ligand affinity, in an alphabeta TCR(More)