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It is becoming increasingly clear that single cortical neurons encode complex and behaviorally relevant signals, but efficient means to study gene functions in small networks and single neurons in vivo are still lacking. Here, we establish a method for genetic manipulation and subsequent phenotypic analysis of individual cortical neurons in vivo. First,(More)
We report the cloning of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor-binding protein (ABP), a postsynaptic density (PSD) protein related to glutamate receptor-interacting protein (GRIP) with two sets of three PDZ domains, which binds the GluR2/3 AMPA receptor subunits. ABP exhibits widespread CNS expression and is found at the(More)
The PICK1 protein interacts in neurons with the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) and with several other membrane receptors via its single PDZ domain. We show that PICK1 also binds in neurons and in heterologous cells to protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and that the interaction is highly dependent on the activation of the kinase. The formation(More)
Long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, a model for memory formation in the brain, is divided into two phases. A transient process (induction) is initiated, which then generates a persistent mechanism (maintenance) for enhancing synaptic strength. Protein kinase C (PKC), a gene family of multiple isozymes, may play a role in both(More)
The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), which controls childbirth and lactation, receives increasing attention for its effects on social behaviors, but how it reaches central brain regions is still unclear. Here we gained by recombinant viruses selective genetic access to hypothalamic OT neurons to study their connectivity and control their activity by(More)
We studied the role of PDZ proteins GRIP, ABP, and PICK1 in GluR2 AMPA receptor trafficking. An epitope-tagged MycGluR2 subunit, when expressed in hippocampal cultured neurons, was specifically targeted to the synaptic surface. With the mutant MycGluR2delta1-10, which lacks the PDZ binding site, the overall dendritic intracellular transport and the synaptic(More)
The related small GTPases Ras and Rap1 are important for signaling synaptic AMPA receptor (-R) trafficking during long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), respectively. Rap2, which shares 60% identity to Rap1, is present at excitatory synapses, but its functional role is unknown. Here, we report that Rap2 activity, stimulated by(More)
In this study, we demonstrate specific interaction of the GluR2 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor subunit C-terminal peptide with an ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and alpha- and beta-soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs), as well as dendritic colocalization of these proteins. The assembly of the(More)
Activity-driven delivery of AMPA receptors is proposed to mediate glutamatergic synaptic plasticity, both during development and learning. In hippocampal CA1 principal neurons, such trafficking is primarily mediated by the abundant GluR-A subunit. We now report a study of GluR-B(long), a C-terminal splice variant of the GluR-B subunit. GluR-B(long) synaptic(More)
The AMPA-type glutamate receptors mediate the majority of the fast excitatory synaptic transmission and critically contribute to synaptic plasticity in the brain, hence the existence of numerous trafficking proteins dedicated to regulation of their synaptic delivery and turnover. Stargazin (also termed gamma2) is a member of a recently identified protein(More)