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D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) catalyzes the oxidation of D-amino acids including d-serine, a full agonist at the glycine site of the NMDA receptor. A series of benzo[ d]isoxazol-3-ol derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as DAAO inhibitors. Among them, 5-chloro-benzo[ d]isoxazol-3-ol (CBIO) potently inhibited DAAO with an IC50 in the submicromolar range.(More)
D-Serine was previously identified in mammalian brain and was shown to be a co-agonist at the 'glycine' site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type receptors. Racemization of serine is catalyzed by serine racemase, a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme expressed mainly in brain and liver. NMDA receptor overactivation has been implicated in a number of(More)
Approximately 10% of cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive and fatal degeneration that targets motor neurons (MNs), are inherited, and approximately 20% of these cases of familial ALS (FALS) are caused by mutations of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase type 1. Glutamate excitotoxicity has been implicated as a mechanism of MN death in(More)
Membrane-bound glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is a zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate (NAAG) to N-acetyl-L-aspartate and L-glutamate (which is itself a neurotransmitter). Potent and selective GCPII inhibitors have been shown to decrease brain glutamate and provide neuroprotection(More)
Truncation of a peptide substrate in the N-terminus and replacement of its scissile amide bond with a non-cleavable reduced bond results in a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 protease. A series of such inhibitors has been synthesized, and S2-S3' subsites of the protease binding cleft mapped. The S2 pocket requires bulky Boc or PIV groups, large aromatic Phe(More)
The mechanisms of intramembrane proteases are incompletely understood due to the lack of structural data on substrate complexes. To gain insight into substrate binding by rhomboid proteases, we have synthesised a series of novel peptidyl-chloromethylketone (CMK) inhibitors and analysed their interactions with Escherichia coli rhomboid GlpG enzymologically(More)
δ-Thiolactones derived from thiol-based glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) inhibitors were evaluated as prodrugs. In rat liver microsomes, 2-(3-mercaptopropyl)pentanedioic acid (2-MPPA, 1) was gradually produced from 3-(2-oxotetrahydrothiopyran-3-yl)propionic acid (5), a thiolactone derived from 1. Compound 1 was detected in plasma at concentrations well(More)
A series of 2-(thioalkyl)pentanedioic acids were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCP II, EC The inhibitory potency of these thiol-based compounds against GCP II was found to be dependent on the number of methylene units between the thiol group and pentanedioic acid. A comparison of the SAR of the(More)
Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII, EC is a membrane peptidase expressed in a number of tissues such as kidney, prostate and brain. The brain form of GCPII (also known as NAALADase) cleaves N-acetyl-aspartyl glutamate to yield free glutamate. Animal model experiments show that inhibition of GCPII prevents neuronal cell death during experimental(More)