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soil water dynamics in the unsaturated zone-State of the art. This paper reviews the principles underlying water dynamics in the unsaturated zone and gives an overview of simulation modelling of soil water flow in the unsaturated zone. The basic relations describing kinetics of flow and governing equations of flow in the un-saturated zone are presented in a(More)
The potential impacts of climate change on the hydrology and water resources of the Nile River basin are assessed using a macroscale hydrology model driven by 21 st century simulations of temperature and precipitation downscaled from runs of 11 General Circulation Models (GCMs) and two global emissions scenarios (A2 and B1) archived for the 2007 IPCC(More)
Water scarcity severely impairs food security and economic prosperity in many countries today. Expected future population changes will, in many countries as well as globally, increase the pressure on available water resources. On the supply side, renewable water resources will be affected by projected changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and(More)
This article summarizes the changes in landscape structure because of human land management over the last several centuries, and using observed and modeled data, documents how these changes have altered biogeophysical and biogeochemical surface fluxes on the local, mesoscale, and regional scales. Remaining research issues are presented including whether(More)
The Indian subcontinent faces a population increase from 1.6 billion in 2000 towards 2 billion around 2050. Therefore, expansion of agricultural area combined with increases in productivity will be necessary to produce the food needed in the future. However, with pressure on water resources already being high, and potential effects of climate change still(More)