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Pulsed laser deposition has been used to artificially construct the n = 3 Ruddlesden-Popper structure La(2)Sr(2)Mn(3)O(10) in epitaxial thin film form by sequentially layering La(1-x)Sr(x)MnO(3) and SrO unit cells aided by in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction monitoring. The interval deposition technique was used to promote two-dimensional(More)
Crystalline materials that combine electrical polarization and magnetization could be advantageous in applications such as information storage, but these properties are usually considered to have incompatible chemical bonding and electronic requirements. Recent theoretical work on perovskite materials suggested a route for combining both properties. We used(More)
Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials exhibit long-range order of atomic-scale electric or magnetic dipoles that can be switched by applying an appropriate electric or magnetic field, respectively. Both switching phenomena form the basis of non-volatile random access memory, but in the ferroelectric case, this involves destructive electrical reading and(More)
The dynamics and distribution of oak forests on the territory of Eastern Europe over the last 12500 years have been studied. The basic materials used in this study are spore-pollen diagrams converted into the PALAEO database. As a result of this study, a series of maps describing the paleohabitat of oak forests with a 500-year increment has been(More)
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