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NK cells have been established as an important effector of innate immunity in a variety of viral infections. In HIV-1 infection in humans, alterations of NK cell function, frequency, and expression of various NK receptors have been reported to be associated with differential dynamics of disease progression. Expression of certain alleles of KIR3DL and KIR3DS(More)
Macrophages play an important role in the immune system. They also participate in multiple processes including angiogenesis and triggering of inflammation. The present study summarizes pieces of knowledge on the importance of macrophages in disease, especially the inflammation. Special attention is paid to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP)(More)
A group of three rhesus macaques were inoculated with SIV isolated from a human (SIVhu) accidentally exposed and infected with SIVsm. Extensive sequence analyses of SIVhu obtained from the human and macaques following infection indicated the presence of truncated nef. Not only did nef fail to repair itself in vivo postinfection (p.i.), but instead, further(More)
The finding that a single administration of select recombinant human cytokines to nonhuman primates leads to potent cytokine-neutralizing antibody responses in the heterologous host despite >95% homology at the nucleotide and protein level prompted our laboratory to clone, sequence, and prepare recombinant nonhuman primate cytokines, chemokines, growth(More)
Innate immune mechanisms play a deterministic role in the rate of disease progression during acute infection in HIV infected humans and SIV infection of non-human primates. The role NK cells play in mediating such an effect has thus gained importance. One of the major sets of molecules that regulate NK cell function are the killer cell immunoglobulin-like(More)
Serum samples from 22 hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) patients were tested for Sin Nombre virus (SNV)-reactive antibodies. In the acute phase of HPS, 100% and 67% of the samples tested positive for SNV-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgA, respectively. Among the virus-specific IgG antibodies, the most prevalent were IgG3 (in 97% of samples), followed(More)
Using tetanus toxoid (TT) and influenza (Flu) immunization of rhesus macaques as a model, the effect of IL-2 and IL-15 on the generation and maintenance of antigen specific memory T cells was evaluated following primary and secondary immunization. Daily cytokine administration expanded primarily effector but not memory cells, while spacing cytokine(More)
Naturally SIV-infected sooty mangabeys (SMs) remain asymptomatic despite high virus replication. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying AIDS resistance of SIV-infected SMs may provide crucial information to better understand AIDS pathogenesis. In this study, we assessed the determinants of set-point viremia in naturally SIV-infected SMs, i.e., immune control(More)
Adoptive transfer of autologous preinfection-collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or activated CD4(+) T cells was performed in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239)-infected monkeys following short-term antiviral therapy with PMPA (9-R-[2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl] adenine). Short-term chemotherapy alone led to a transient decrease in(More)
Coinfection by HIV and syphilis has become a growing problem due to the re-appearance of unsafe sexual practices in the era of potent anti-retroviral drugs. We describe a repeated import of syphilis by a couple of men-who-have-sex-with-men from Thailand to Czech Republic likely due to non-adherence of the patients to physician recommendations. Such cases(More)