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BACKGROUND The transciliary supraorbital approach (TCSO) provides an anterior view for visualizing sellar, parasellar, and suprasellar structures. Whether an orbital osteotomy adds to this exposure has not been quantified. OBJECTIVE We quantitatively evaluated the TCSO and benefits of an additional orbital osteotomy for exposing common sites of anterior(More)
In many bacterial viruses and in certain animal viruses, the double-stranded DNA genome enters and exits the capsid through a portal gatekeeper. We report a pseudoatomic structure of a complete portal system. The bacteriophage SPP1 gatekeeper is composed of dodecamers of the portal protein gp6, the adaptor gp15, and the stopper gp16. The solution structures(More)
The AraR protein is a negative regulator involved in L-arabinose-inducible expression of the Bacillus subtilis araABDLMNPQ-abfA metabolic operon and of the araE/araR genes that are organized as a divergent transcriptional unit. The two ara gene clusters are found at different positions in the bacterial chromosome. AraR was overproduced in Escherichia coli(More)
The irreversible binding of bacteriophages to their receptor(s) in the host cell surface triggers release of the naked genome from the virion followed by transit of viral DNA to the host cell cytoplasm. We have purified, for the first time, a receptor from a Gram-positive bacterium that is active to trigger viral DNA ejection in vitro. This extracellular(More)
The majority of known bacteriophages have long noncontractile tails (Siphoviridae) that serve as a pipeline for genome delivery into the host cytoplasm. The tail extremity distal from the phage head is an adsorption device that recognises the bacterial receptor at the host cell surface. This interaction generates a signal transmitted to the head that leads(More)
In tailed bacteriophages and herpes viruses, the viral DNA is packaged through the portal protein channel. Channel closure is essential to prevent DNA release after packaging. Here we present the connector structure from bacteriophage SPP1 using cryo-electron microscopy and single particle analysis. The multiprotein complex comprises the portal protein gp6(More)
The structure of the bacteriophage SPP1 capsid was determined at subnanometer resolution by cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle analysis. The icosahedral capsid is composed of the major capsid protein gp13 and the auxiliary protein gp12, which are organized in a T=7 lattice. DNA is arranged in layers with a distance of ~24.5 Å. gp12 forms spikes(More)
The genetic diversity observed among bacteriophages remains a major obstacle for the identification of homologs and the comparison of their functional modules. In the structural module, although several classes of homologous proteins contributing to the head and tail structure can be detected, proteins of the head-to-tail connection (or neck) are generally(More)
DNA packaging in tailed bacteriophages and other viruses requires assembly of a complex molecular machine at a specific vertex of the procapsid. This machine is composed of the portal protein that provides a tunnel for DNA entry, an ATPase that fuels DNA translocation (large terminase subunit), and most frequently, a small terminase subunit. Here we(More)
Initiation of headful packaging of SPP1 DNA concatemers involves the interaction of the terminase, G1P and G2P, and the portal protein, G6P. G1P, which specifically recognizes the non-adjacent pacL and pacR subsites and directs loading of G2P to pacC, interacts with G6P. G2P, which has endonuclease, DNA binding, and ATPase activities, interacts with G1P and(More)