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Nestedness has been widely reported for both metacommunities and networks of interacting species. Even though the concept of this ecological pattern has been well-defined, there are several metrics by which it can be quantified. We noted that current metrics do not correctly quantify two major properties of nestedness: (1) whether marginal totals (i.e.(More)
Nestedness is a property of binary matrices of ecological data and quantified by the matrix's temperature, T. The program widely used to calculate T is Nestedness Temperature Calculator (NTC). NTC analyses matrices individually, turning the analysis of large sets time-consuming. We introduce ANINHADO, a program developed to perform rapid and automatic(More)
The interactions between plants and their animal pollinators and seed dispersers have moulded much of Earth's biodiversity. Recently, it has been shown that these mutually beneficial interactions form complex networks with a well-defined architecture that may contribute to biodiversity persistence. Little is known, however, about which ecological and(More)
Optimal foraging theory predicts that individuals should become more opportunistic when intraspecific competition is high and preferred resources are scarce. This density-dependent diet shift should result in increased diet breadth for individuals as they add previously unused prey to their repertoire. As a result, the niche breadth of the population as a(More)
The structure of mutualistic networks provides clues to processes shaping biodiversity [1-10]. Among them, interaction intimacy, the degree of biological association between partners, leads to differences in specialization patterns [4, 11] and might affect network organization [12]. Here, we investigated potential consequences of interaction intimacy for(More)
About 45 palm species occur in the Atlantic forest of Brazil, and most of them are affected by loss of seed dispersers resulting from forest fragmentation and hunting. Here we report the effects of habitat loss and defaunation on the seed dispersal system of an endemic palm, Astrocaryum aculeatissimum. We evaluated seed removal, insect and rodent seed(More)
In a given area, plant-animal mutualistic interactions form complex networks that often display nestedness, a particular type of asymmetry in interactions. Simple ecological and evolutionary factors have been hypothesized to lead to nested networks. Therefore, nestedness is expected to occur in other types of mutualisms as well. We tested the above(More)
Emerging infectious diseases are among the main threats to conservation of biological diversity. A crucial task facing epidemiologists is to predict the vulnerability of populations of endangered animals to disease outbreaks. In this context, the network structure of social interactions within animal populations may affect disease spreading. However,(More)
Mutualistic networks involving plants and their pollinators or frugivores have been shown recently to exhibit a particular asymmetrical organization of interactions among species called nestedness: a core of reciprocal generalists accompanied by specialist species that interact almost exclusively with generalists. This structure contrasts with(More)