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Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823(More)
Using a numerical technique we demonstrate that the flow of the simplest differential viscoelastic fluid model (i.e., the upper-convected Maxwell model) goes through a bifurcation to a steady asymmetric state when flowing in a perfectly symmetric "cross-slot" geometry. We show that this asymmetry is purely elastic in nature and that the effect of inertia is(More)
The flow of viscoelastic liquids with constant shear viscosity through symmetric sudden expansions is studied by numerical means. The geometry considered is planar and the constitutive model follows the modified FENE-CR equation, valid for relative dilute solutions of polymeric fluids. For Newtonian liquids in a 1:3 expansion we predict the result that the(More)
The mitochondrion is emerging as a key organelle in stem cell biology, acting as a regulator of stem cell pluripotency and differentiation. In this study we sought to understand the effect of mitochondrial complex III inhibition during neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. When exposed to antimycin A, a specific complex III inhibitor,(More)
In the present study we investigated the effects of phenolic compounds present in Hypericum perforatum against neuronal excitotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction. Quercetin, kaempferol and biapigenin significantly reduced neuronal death caused by 100 microM kainate plus 100 microM N-methyl-D-aspartate. The observed neuroprotection was correlated with(More)
This study was aimed to analyse and compare the bioenergetics and oxidative status of mitochondria isolated from liver, heart and brain of ovariectomized rat females treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) and/or tamoxifen (TAM). E2 and/or TAM did not alter significantly the respiratory chain of the three types of mitochondria. However, TAM significantly decreased(More)
Disturbance and deforestation have profound ecological and socioeconomic effects on tropical forests, but their diffuse patterns are difficult to detect and quantify at regional scales. We expanded the Carnegie forest damage detection system to show that, between 1999 and 2005, disturbance and deforestation rates throughout the Peruvian Amazon averaged 632(More)
Aging and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases are characterized by tissue and mitochondrial changes that compromise brain function. Alterations can include increased reactive oxygen species production and impaired antioxidant capacity with a consequent increase in oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction that compromises(More)
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), a compound present in beverages such as tea and coffee, is known to be toxic at high concentrations. Some of the observed clinical conditions include cardiovascular disease and reproductive disorders, among others. The possible toxic effects of caffeine on heart mitochondria are still poorly understood. The influence of(More)
This paper reports the development and application of a finite-volume based methodology for the calculation of the flow of fluids which follow differential viscoelastic constitutive models. The novelty of the method lies on the use of the non-staggered grid arrangement, in which all dependent variables are located at the center of the control volumes, thus(More)