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BACKGROUND "Frailty" is an adverse, primarily gerontologic, health condition regarded as frequent with aging and having severe consequences. Although clinicians claim that the extremes of frailty can be easily recognized, a standardized definition of frailty has proved elusive until recently. This article evaluates the cross-validity, criterion validity,(More)
BACKGROUND Frailty in older adults, defined as a constellation of signs and symptoms, is associated with abnormal levels in individual physiological systems. We tested the hypothesis that it is the critical mass of physiological systems abnormal that is associated with frailty, over and above the status of each individual system, and that the relationship(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the independent association between heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of cardiac autonomic function, and cognitive impairment. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from Women's Health and Aging Study I. SETTING Urban community in Baltimore, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS A subset of 311 physically disabled,(More)
BACKGROUND The physiological basis of the geriatric syndrome of frailty, a clinical state of increased vulnerability to adverse outcomes such as disability and mortality, remains to be better characterized. We examined the cross-sectional relationship between hemoglobin (Hb) and a recently-validated measure of frailty in community-dwelling older women, and(More)
BACKGROUND Anemia is viewed as a negative prognostic factor in the elderly population; its independent impact on survival is unclear. METHODS Baseline hemoglobin quintiles and anemia, as defined by the World Health Organization criteria, were assessed in relation to mortality in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a prospective cohort study with 11.2 years(More)
Chronic kidney disease is associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular mortality, as well as all-cause mortality. Whether chronic kidney disease is a predictor of noncardiovascular mortality is less clear. To further explore the latter, the association of kidney function with total noncardiovascular mortality and cause-specific mortality was assessed in(More)
BACKGROUND Red cell distribution width (RDW) is a quantitative measure of variability in the size of circulating erythrocytes with higher values reflecting greater heterogeneity in cell sizes. Recent studies have shown that higher RDW is associated with increased mortality risk in patients with clinically significant cardiovascular disease (CVD). Whether(More)
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a key pathogenic fat depot in the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but liver fat (LF) may also play an important role. We evaluated associations of VAT and LF with MetS in normal weight, overweight, and obese men and women (BMI <25, 25-29.9, and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively). This analysis included 2,495 participants from the Age,(More)
Observational studies have consistently documented independent, strong associations of anemia--even if not severe--with major adverse functional outcomes in older adults. In this chapter, recent epidemiologic evidence linking mild anemia with decline in physical and cognitive function, frailty, and disability in community-dwelling older adults is reviewed.(More)
Mortality risk associated with electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities has been commonly reported to be lower in women than in men. We compared coronary heart disease (CHD) and all-cause mortality risk for ECG variables during a mean 9.1-year follow-up in 4,912 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study who were > or = 65 years of age. The hypothesis(More)