Paulo H . M . Chaves

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BACKGROUND "Frailty" is an adverse, primarily gerontologic, health condition regarded as frequent with aging and having severe consequences. Although clinicians claim that the extremes of frailty can be easily recognized, a standardized definition of frailty has proved elusive until recently. This article evaluates the cross-validity, criterion validity,(More)
BACKGROUND Red cell distribution width (RDW) is a quantitative measure of variability in the size of circulating erythrocytes with higher values reflecting greater heterogeneity in cell sizes. Recent studies have shown that higher RDW is associated with increased mortality risk in patients with clinically significant cardiovascular disease (CVD). Whether(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether low vitamin D concentrations are associated with an increased risk of incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer disease. METHODS One thousand six hundred fifty-eight elderly ambulatory adults free from dementia, cardiovascular disease, and stroke who participated in the US population-based Cardiovascular Health Study between(More)
BACKGROUND Anemia is viewed as a negative prognostic factor in the elderly population; its independent impact on survival is unclear. METHODS Baseline hemoglobin quintiles and anemia, as defined by the World Health Organization criteria, were assessed in relation to mortality in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a prospective cohort study with 11.2 years(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the independent association between heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of cardiac autonomic function, and cognitive impairment. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from Women's Health and Aging Study I. SETTING Urban community in Baltimore, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS A subset of 311 physically disabled,(More)
BACKGROUND Frailty in older adults, defined as a constellation of signs and symptoms, is associated with abnormal levels in individual physiological systems. We tested the hypothesis that it is the critical mass of physiological systems abnormal that is associated with frailty, over and above the status of each individual system, and that the relationship(More)
Observational studies have consistently documented independent, strong associations of anemia--even if not severe--with major adverse functional outcomes in older adults. In this chapter, recent epidemiologic evidence linking mild anemia with decline in physical and cognitive function, frailty, and disability in community-dwelling older adults is reviewed.(More)
OBJECTIVE CD14 is a glycosylphosphotidylinositol-anchored membrane glycoprotein expressed on neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages that also circulates as a soluble form (sCD14). Despite the well-recognized role of CD14 in inflammation, relatively little is known about the genetic determinants of sCD14 or the relationship of sCD14 to vascular- and(More)
OBJECTIVES The World Health Organization (WHO) and other currently used criteria for defining anemia in older women are mainly based on statistical distribution considerations. To explore their clinical appropriateness, we evaluated the relationship between hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, prevalent mobility difficulty, and the Summary Performance Score(More)
BACKGROUND Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors prevent decline in physical function in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). We aimed to see whether ACE inhibitors also prevent reduction in physical performance and in muscle strength in older women who do not have CHF. METHODS We assessed 3-year rates of decline in both knee extensor(More)