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BACKGROUND Anemia is viewed as a negative prognostic factor in the elderly population; its independent impact on survival is unclear. METHODS Baseline hemoglobin quintiles and anemia, as defined by the World Health Organization criteria, were assessed in relation to mortality in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a prospective cohort study with 11.2 years(More)
BACKGROUND The physiological basis of the geriatric syndrome of frailty, a clinical state of increased vulnerability to adverse outcomes such as disability and mortality, remains to be better characterized. We examined the cross-sectional relationship between hemoglobin (Hb) and a recently-validated measure of frailty in community-dwelling older women, and(More)
BACKGROUND Frailty in older adults, defined as a constellation of signs and symptoms, is associated with abnormal levels in individual physiological systems. We tested the hypothesis that it is the critical mass of physiological systems abnormal that is associated with frailty, over and above the status of each individual system, and that the relationship(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate shared and unique risk factors for maintaining physical and cognitive function into the ninth decade and beyond. DESIGN Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING Four U.S. communities. PARTICIPANTS One thousand six hundred seventy-seven participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars Study, assessed in 2005/06. Median age was(More)
BACKGROUND "Frailty" is an adverse, primarily gerontologic, health condition regarded as frequent with aging and having severe consequences. Although clinicians claim that the extremes of frailty can be easily recognized, a standardized definition of frailty has proved elusive until recently. This article evaluates the cross-validity, criterion validity,(More)
BACKGROUND Red cell distribution width (RDW) is a quantitative measure of variability in the size of circulating erythrocytes with higher values reflecting greater heterogeneity in cell sizes. Recent studies have shown that higher RDW is associated with increased mortality risk in patients with clinically significant cardiovascular disease (CVD). Whether(More)
Mortality risk associated with electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities has been commonly reported to be lower in women than in men. We compared coronary heart disease (CHD) and all-cause mortality risk for ECG variables during a mean 9.1-year follow-up in 4,912 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study who were > or = 65 years of age. The hypothesis(More)
AIMS To classify the different types of anemia among moderately to severely disabled women living in the community and examine the relationship between types of anemia and mortality. METHODS We studied anemia in 688 women, >or=65 years, in the Women's Health and Aging Study I, a population based study of moderately to severely disabled older women living(More)
BACKGROUND Age-related deterioration in homeostatic regulatory mechanisms leads to decreased complexity in their output. For example, the degradation of cardiac autonomic control results in loss of complexity in the heart rate signal. Frailty is a state of critically impaired homeostasis that results in heightened vulnerability to stressors. We propose a(More)
BACKGROUND Mitral annular calcification (MAC), aortic annular calcification (AAC), and aortic valve sclerosis (AVS) are associated with aging, and MAC and AVS are markers of advanced atherosclerosis. No studies have examined the prevalence and the clinical relevance of all 3 forms of calcification in a single free-living elderly population. METHODS We(More)