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The effect of glutamate on [Ca2+]i and on [3H] gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release was studied on cultured chick embryonic retina cells. It was observed that glutamate (100 microM) increases the [Ca2+]i by Ca2+ influx through Ca2+ channels sensitive to nitrendipine, but not to omega-conotoxin GVIA (omega-Cg Tx) (50%), and by other channels insensitive to(More)
Previously we demonstrated that insulin protects against neuronal oxidative stress by restoring antioxidants and energy metabolism. In this study, we analysed how insulin influences insulin-(IR) and insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) intracellular signaling pathways after oxidative stress caused by ascorbate/Fe2+ in rat cortical neurons. Insulin(More)
Proteolytic cleavage of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) by calpains impairs calcium homeostasis, leading to a delayed calcium overload and excitotoxic cell death. However, it is not known whether reversal of the exchanger contributes to activate calpains and trigger neuronal death. We investigated the role of the reversal of the NCX in Ca(2+) dynamics,(More)
Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness among adults in the western countries. It has been reported that neurodegeneration may occur in diabetic retinas, but the mechanisms underlying retinal cell death are poorly understood. We found that high glucose increased the number of cells with condensed nuclei and the number of TUNEL-positive cells,(More)
 HLA-A, -B, -DRB1, -DQA1, and DQB1 alleles were studied in Iberian and Algerian populations by serology and DNA sequence methodologies. The genetic and cultural relatedness among Basques, Spaniards, and paleo-North Africans (Berbers or Tamazights) was established. Portuguese people have also maintained a certain degree of cultural and ethnic-specific(More)
To compare frequency and functional activity of peripheral blood (PB) Th(c)17, Th(c)1 and Treg cells and the amount of type 2 cytokines mRNA we recruited SLE patients in active (n=15) and inactive disease (n=19) and healthy age- and gender-matched controls (n=15). The study of Th(c)17, Th(c)1 and Treg cells was done by flow cytometry and cytokine mRNA by(More)
The Dale's law postulates that a neuron releases the same neurotransmitter from all its branches. In the case of multiple neurotransmitters it would require all transmitters to be released from all branches. The retinal cholinergic amacrine cells contain and release gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) and, therefore, if GABA and acetylcholine (ACh) are released at(More)
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been proposed to play a role as a neurotransmitter in the retina, but not much attention has been given to the regulation of ATP release from retinal neurons. In this work, we investigated the release of ATP from cultures enriched in amacrine-like neurons. Depolarization of the cells with KCl, or activation of(More)
The effect of glutamate receptor agonists (NMDA, kainate, quisqualate and AMPA) on the [Ca2+]i and on [3H]GABA release was studied in cultured chick embryonic retinal cells. The release of [3H]GABA evoked by NMDA, in the absence of Ca2+, was prevented by the NMDA receptor antagonist (+)-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]-cyclohepten-5,10-imine (MK-801),(More)
Diabetes induces changes in neurotransmitter release in central nervous system, which depend on the type of neurotransmitter and region studied. In this study, we evaluated the effect of diabetes (two and eight weeks duration) on basal and evoked release of [(14)C]glutamate and [(3)H]GABA in hippocampal and retinal synaptosomes. We also analyzed the effect(More)