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Little is known on how beta-barrel proteins are assembled in the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria. SurA has been proposed to be the primary chaperone escorting the bulk mass of OM proteins across the periplasm. However, the impact of SurA deletion on the global OM proteome has not been determined, limiting therefore our understanding of the(More)
The reactive species of oxygen and chlorine damage cellular components, potentially leading to cell death. In proteins, the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine is converted to methionine sulfoxide, which can cause a loss of biological activity. To rescue proteins with methionine sulfoxide residues, living cells express methionine sulfoxide reductases(More)
In Escherichia coli, DsbA introduces disulphide bonds into secreted proteins. DsbA is recycled by DsbB, which generates disulphides from quinone reduction. DsbA is not known to have any proofreading activity and can form incorrect disulphides in proteins with multiple cysteines. These incorrect disulphides are thought to be corrected by a protein disulphide(More)
The cell envelope protects bacteria from their surroundings. Defects in its integrity or assembly are sensed by signal transduction systems, allowing cells to rapidly adjust. The Rcs phosphorelay responds to outer membrane (OM)- and peptidoglycan-related stress in enterobacteria. We elucidated how the OM lipoprotein RcsF, the upstream Rcs component, senses(More)
We studied the interaction of gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine (glutathione, GSH) with cadmium ions (Cd(2+)) by first performing classical potentiometric pH titration measurements and then turning to additional spectroscopic methods. To estimate the residual concentrations of free cadmium, we studied the competition of glutathione with a(More)
The bacterial Rcs phosphorelay is a stress-induced defense mechanism that controls the expression of numerous genes, including those for capsular polysaccharides, motility, and virulence factors. It is a complex multicomponent system that includes the histidine kinase (RcsC) and the response regulator (RcsB) and also auxiliary proteins such as RcsF. RcsF is(More)
UNLABELLED Disulfide bond formation is required for the folding of many bacterial virulence factors. However, whereas the Escherichia coli disulfide bond-forming system is well characterized, not much is known on the pathways that oxidatively fold proteins in pathogenic bacteria. Here, we report the detailed unraveling of the pathway that introduces(More)
Many proteins secreted to the bacterial cell envelope contain cysteine residues that are involved in disulfide bonds. These disulfides either play a structural role, increasing protein stability, or reversibly form in the catalytic site of periplasmic oxidoreductases. Monitoring the in vivo redox state of cysteine residues, i.e., determining whether those(More)
The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria is a complex macromolecular structure that is essential for their viability. Little is known on how the proteins which are secreted to the envelope fold into their unique three-dimensional structure. Several folding factors, including chaperones and protein folding catalysts involved in disulfide bond formation,(More)
The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria is an essential organelle that is important for cell shape and protection from toxic compounds. Proteins involved in envelope biogenesis are therefore attractive targets for the design of new antibacterial agents. In a search for new envelope assembly factors, we screened a collection of Escherichia coli deletion(More)
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