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Polysaccharides of pathogenic extracellular bacteria commonly have negatively charged groups or no charged groups at all. These molecules have been considered classic T cell-independent Ags that do not elicit cell-mediated immune responses in mice. However, bacterial polysaccharides with a zwitterionic charge motif (ZPSs), such as the capsular(More)
Before a class II molecule can be loaded with antigenic material and reach the surface to engage CD4+ T cells, its chaperone, the class II-associated invariant chain (Ii), is degraded in a stepwise fashion by proteases in endocytic compartments. We have dissected the role of cathepsin S (CatS) in the trafficking and maturation of class II molecules by(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages demonstrate diminished capacity to present antigens via class II MHC molecules. Since successful class II MHC-restricted antigen presentation relies on the actions of endocytic proteases, we asked whether the activities of cathepsins (Cat) B, S and L-three major lysosomal cysteine proteases-are modulated in(More)
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