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A human genetic defect associated with 'long Q-T syndrome', an abnormality of cardiac rhythm involving the repolarization of the action potential, was recently found to lie in the HERG gene, which codes for a potassium channel. The HERG K+ channel is unusual in that it seems to have the architectural plan of the depolarization-activated K+ channel family(More)
HERG encodes an inwardly-rectifying potassium channel that plays an important role in repolarization of the cardiac action potential. Inward rectification of HERG channels results from rapid and voltage-dependent inactivation gating, combined with very slow activation gating. We asked whether the voltage sensor is implicated in the unusual properties of(More)
Small organic molecules, like quaternary ammonium compounds, have long been used to probe both the permeation and gating of voltage-dependent K+ channels. For most K+ channels, intracellularly applied quaternary ammonium (QA) compounds such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) and decyltriethylammonium (C10) behave primarily as open channel blockers: they can enter(More)
Many transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are activated or blocked by various compounds found in plants; two prominent examples include the activation of TRPV1 channels by capsaicin and the activation of TRPM8 channels by menthol. We sought to identify additional plant compounds that are active on other types of TRP channels. We screened a library of(More)
Injury to a branch of the trigeminal nerve may lead to the development of chronic pain in the affected area. The etiology of this condition is not clear, but there is strong evidence to suggest that spontaneous and mechanically induced neural discharge from the injury site plays a crucial role. In laboratory studies, we have characterized this discharge(More)
Absence seizures are a common seizure type in children with genetic generalized epilepsy and are characterized by a temporary loss of awareness, arrest of physical activity, and accompanying spike-and-wave discharges on an electroencephalogram. They arise from abnormal, hypersynchronous neuronal firing in brain thalamocortical circuits. Currently available(More)
Several genes conferring susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer, notably BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been identified. The majority of the familial aggregation of breast cancer is, however, not explained by these genes. We have previously derived, using segregation analysis, a susceptibility model (BOADICEA, Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence(More)
To investigate the role of D(1)-like receptors in endogenous dopamine (DA)-mediated feedback control of DA neurons in vivo, single unit recordings were made from rat nigral DA cells using low cerveau isolé preparations. The D(2) antagonist raclopride, but not the D(1) antagonist SCH23390, increased baseline activity of DA neurons, suggesting that(More)
abstract Small organic molecules, like quaternary ammonium compounds, have long been used to probe both the permeation and gating of voltage-dependent K ϩ channels. For most K ϩ channels, intracellularly applied quaternary ammonium (QA) compounds such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) and decyltriethylammonium (C 10) behave primarily as open channel blockers:(More)
BACKGROUND Voltage-gated sodium channels play key roles in acute and chronic pain processing. The molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological properties of sodium channel currents have been extensively studied for peripheral nociceptors while the properties of sodium channel currents in dorsal horn spinal cord neurons remain incompletely understood. Thus(More)