Paula Sheppard

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Although many patients infected with Dientamoeba fragilis suffer gastrointestinal symptoms, controversy still surrounds the pathogenic role of this intestinal protozoan. We describe three patients infected with D fragilis who had gastrointestinal symptoms. In the first patient symptoms resolved with therapy before the protozoan was eradicated from the(More)
Despite the widespread assumption that paternal investment is substantial in our species, previous studies have shown mixed results in relation to the impact of fathers on both offspring survival and reproductive outcomes. Using data from a large representative sample of British men, we tested whether father absence is associated with the timing of(More)
Father absence is consistently associated with children's reproductive outcomes in industrialized countries. It has been suggested that father absence acts as a cue to particular environmental conditions that influence life history strategies. Much less is known, however, about the effects of father absence on such outcomes in lower-income countries. Using(More)
Childhood family structure has been shown to play an important role in shaping a child's life course development, especially in industrialised societies. One hypothesis which could explain such findings is that parental investment is likely to be diluted in families without both natural parents. Most empirical studies have examined the influence of only one(More)
Developmental environments are crucial for shaping our life course. Elements of the early social and biological environments have been consistently associated with reproduction in humans. To date, a strong focus has been on the relationship between early stress, earlier menarche and first child birth in women. These associations, found predominately in(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Childhood family background is known to be associated with child growth and development, including the onset of puberty, but less is known about the influence of childhood family disruption on outcomes in later life. Given the associations between early family disruption and childhood development, we predicted that there may be(More)
The objective of this study was to investigate if patients diagnosed in community clinics have higher baseline CD4 cell counts than those diagnosed in Genitourinary medicine (GUM)/HIV clinics. We undertook a retrospective review of baseline CD4 cell counts for patients receiving a reactive HIV test in community-testing clinics. Eleven local HIV clinics were(More)
Previous research has found that the presence of grandparents, particularly grandmothers, is often positively associated with child survival. Little research has explored the potential mechanisms driving these associations. We use data from rural Guatemala to test whether contact with and direct investment (advice and financial) from grandparents is(More)
OBJECTIVES In high-income populations, evidence suggests that socioeconomic disadvantage early in life is correlated with reproductive strategy. Children growing up in unfavorable rearing environments tend to experience earlier sexual maturity and first births. Earlier first births may be associated with higher fertility, but links between socioeconomic(More)
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