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Lymphotoxin (LT) provides a critical signal for the genesis of lymph nodes (LN) in mice. Here we show that mice treated in utero with LT beta-R-Ig, which binds to the membrane LT alpha 1 beta 2 heterotrimer, lacked most LN, yet retained a set of mucosal surface draining LN. Since mice genetically deficient in LT alpha lack all LN, including the mucosal set,(More)
For more than a decade, the biological roles and the apparent redundancy of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin (LT) have been debated. LTo~ exists in its soluble form as a homotrimer, which like TNF only binds the TNF receptors, TNF-R55 or TNF-R75. The cell surface form of LT exists as a heteromer of LTot and LT[3 subunits and this(More)
Germinal centers (GCs) form in B cell follicles and require specific signals for development and maintenance. B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) is a fundamental B cell survival factor and therefore may influence GC reactions and subsequent Ab responses. To test this possibility, the effect of BAFF neutralization in immunized mice(More)
Alefacept is a chimeric protein combining CD58 immunoglobulin-like domain 1 with human IgG1 Fc. Alefacept mediates adhesion by bridging CD2 on T cells to activating Fc receptors on effector cells, but the equilibrium binding parameters have not been determined. Alefacept mediated T cell killing by NK cells and adhesion between CD2- and CD16-expressing cells(More)
Efficient activation and regulation of the cellular immune response requires engagement of T cell accessory molecules as well as the antigen-specific T cell receptor. The lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA) 3 (CD58)/CD2 accessory pathway, one of the first discovered, has been extensively characterized in terms of structure and function of the CD2(More)
Lymph nodes (LNs) are important sentinal organs, populated by circulating lymphocytes and antigen-bearing cells exiting the tissue beds. Although cellular and humoral immune responses are induced in LNs by antigenic challenge, it is not known if LNs are essential for acquired immunity. We examined immune responses in mice that lack LNs due to genetic(More)
Alefacept, an immunomodulatory recombinant fusion protein composed of the first extracellular domain of LFA-3 fused to the human IgG1 hinge, C(H)2, and C(H)3 domains, has recently been shown in phase II and III clinical trials to safely reduce disease expression in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Alefacept modulates the function of and selectively(More)
Excessive scarring or fibrosis is a common feature of a wide spectrum of diseases characterized by an exaggerated Th2 response. The TLR/IL-1 receptor (IL-1R)-related protein ST2 is expressed in a membrane-bound form selectively by Th2 cells and was shown to be indispensable for some in vivo Th2 responses. ST2 was also found to block TLR signaling. We(More)
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