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We investigated lymphotoxin (LT) and TNF function in lymph node genesis and cellular organization by manipulating LTbeta-R and TNF-R signaling. Lymph nodes developed in LTalpha-/- mice treated in utero with agonist anti-LTbeta-R monoclonal antibody. Thus, LTbeta-R signaling mediates lymph node genesis. Surprisingly, mucosal lymph nodes that can develop(More)
To compare the function of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin (LT)alpha/beta systems in the mature immune system, these two pathways were blocked with soluble receptor-immunoglobulin (R-Ig) fusion proteins in normal adult mice. Inhibition of LT alpha/beta signaling using LT betaR-Ig or a blocking monoclonal antibody against murine LT beta had(More)
We analyzed whether interferon-alpha 2b (IFN-alpha 2b) and IFN-beta 1a engage their common receptor to generate activated receptor complexes possessing distinct signaling properties. Human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) are 100-1000-fold more sensitive to IFN-beta 1a than to IFN-alpha 2b in in vitro assays. An nonarray-based expression profiling(More)
Lymphotoxin (LT) provides a critical signal for the genesis of lymph nodes (LN) in mice. Here we show that mice treated in utero with LT beta-R-Ig, which binds to the membrane LT alpha 1 beta 2 heterotrimer, lacked most LN, yet retained a set of mucosal surface draining LN. Since mice genetically deficient in LT alpha lack all LN, including the mucosal set,(More)
Accessory cell surface molecules, such as T cell antigen CD2 and its ligand lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3; CD58), are critical costimulatory pathways for optimal T cell activation in response to antigens. Interaction of CD2 with cell surface LFA-3 not only increases T cell/accessory cell adhesion, but also induces signal transduction(More)
Quantitative analysis of binding of the bivalent recombinant soluble fusion protein, LFA-3/IgG1, shows that the fusion protein binds to human CD2+ PBLs primarily through low affinity (KD approximately 140 microM) but also through high avidity (90 nM) interactions. The concentration dependence for LFA-3/IgG1 PBL binding took the form of two overlapping(More)
The lymphotoxin-alpha beta complex (LT alpha beta) is found on the surface of activated lymphocytes and binds to a specific receptor called the LT beta receptor (LT beta R). In the mouse, signaling through this pathway is important for lymph node development and splenic organization, yet the biochemical properties of murine LT alpha and LT beta are(More)
Soluble ligands specific for cell surface molecules involved in APC-T cell interactions can signal cells and modulate immune responses. Recently, we reported that LFA3TIP, a fusion protein comprised of the first LFA-3 extracellular domain fused to the hinge, CH2, and CH3 regions of a human IgG1 inhibits proliferation of human T cells in vitro. We report(More)
For more than a decade, the biological roles and the apparent redundancy of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin (LT) have been debated. LT alpha exists in its soluble form as a homotrimer, which like TNF only binds the TNF receptors, TNF-R55 or TNF-R75. The cell surface form of LT exists as a heteromer of LT alpha and LT beta subunits(More)
LFA3TIP, a fusion protein comprised of the first extracellular domain of LFA-3 fused to the hinge, CH2 and CH3 domains of human IgG1, inhibits proliferation of human T cells in vitro. LFA3TIP also inhibits responses of human CD2 transgenic mice by rapidly and totally depleting peripheral T cells. These effects require binding of the LFA-3 and CH2 domains of(More)