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Canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling regulates the activation of the myogenic determination gene Myf5 at the onset of myogenesis, but the underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. Here, we report that the Wnt signal is transduced in muscle progenitor cells by at least two Frizzled (Fz) receptors (Fz1 and/or Fz6), through the canonical beta-catenin pathway,(More)
Although it is known that mechanical forces are needed for normal bone development, the current understanding of how biophysical stimuli are interpreted by and integrated with genetic regulatory mechanisms is limited. Mechanical forces are thought to be mediated in cells by "mechanosensitive" genes, but it is a challenge to demonstrate that the genetic(More)
We have performed a set of finite element analyses of embryonic chick hindlimb skeletal rudiments at several time points during development, around the time of initial bone formation. Using optical projection tomography, we created anatomically accurate rudiment and muscle morphologies for each stage. The changes in pattern and magnitude of biophysical(More)
Wnt signalling is one of the fundamental cell communication systems operating in the embryo and the collection of 19 Wnt and 10 Frizzled (Fzd) receptor genes (in mouse and human) represent just part of a complex system to be unravelled. Here we present a spatially comprehensive set of data on the 3D distribution of Wnt and Fzd gene expression patterns at a(More)
We have previously shown that the widely expressed human transcription factor TCF11/LCR-F1/Nrf1 interacts with small Maf proteins and binds to a subclass of AP1-sites. Such sites are required for beta-globin 5' DNase I hypersensitive site 2 enhancer activity, erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase inducibility, hemin responsiveness by heme-oxygenase 1 and(More)
A range of clinical conditions in which fetal movement is reduced or prevented can have a severe effect on skeletal development. Animal models have been instrumental to our understanding of the interplay between mechanical forces and skeletal development, particularly the mouse and the chick model systems. In the chick, the most commonly used means of(More)
The sensitivity of Bacillus subtilis to hydrogen peroxide (oxidative stress) was found to vary with the position of the culture in the growth cycle. The most dramatic change occurred at the stationary phase, when the cells became totally resistant to 10 mM H2O2, in contrast to the loss of 3 to 4 log units of viability when treated at the early log phase.(More)
The knee joint has a highly complex 3-dimensional (3D) morphology that is sculpted at the interface of the forming long bones as they are generated in the embryo. Although it is clear that regulatory genes guide joint formation, the mechanisms that are responsible for morphogenesis of the knee are poorly understood. Certainly the process involves(More)
The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of ten closely related species associated with life-threatening infection in cystic fibrosis (CF). These bacteria are highly antibiotic resistant, with some strains transmissible, and in a subgroup of patients, they can cause a rapid and fatal necrotising pneumonia. The Bcc organisms produce a range of(More)
Gamma-glutamylcysteinylglycine or glutathione (GSH) performs important protective functions in the cell through maintenance of the intracellular redox balance and elimination of xenobiotics and free radicals. The production of GSH involves a number of enzymes and enzyme subunits offering multiple opportunities for regulation. Two members of the CNC(More)