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Stavudine (d4T) is now recommended at the dose of 30 mg twice daily for all adult and adolescent patients regardless of body weight.[A-III] After the publication of WHO's 2006 guidelines for HIV therapy in adults and adolescents, the WHO Guidelines Development Group (GDG) reviewed evidence for the use of stavudine (d4T) at reduced doses. Previously, the(More)
2 The creation of the present guidelines would not have been possible without the participation of numerous experts. This document was developed through an expert consultation process in which account was taken of current scientifi c evidence and the state of the art in the treatment of HIV infection. The primary focus was the context of resource-limited(More)
Operational research (OR) has become a hot topic at national meetings, international conferences and donor fora. The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Operational Centre Brussels strongly promote and implement OR with colleagues in low- and middle-income countries. Here we describe how(More)
Infection with HIV drives the tuberculosis epidemic, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where up to 75% of individuals with tuberculosis are co-infected with HIV. This article reviews the epidemiological link between the conditions, how tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment differ between HIV-infected versus -uninfected individuals and the span of additional(More)
BACKGROUND Zimbabwe has been severely affected by the HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis epidemics, with an estimated 80% of tuberculosis patients being HIV infected. We set out to use annual population-mortality records from the cities of Harare and Bulawayo to describe trends and possible causes of mortality from 1979 to 2008. The specific objectives were to(More)
BACKGROUND As part of its policy to shift monitoring of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to primary health care (PHC) workers, the Ministry of Health of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) tested the feasibility of using dried blood spots (DBS) for viral load (VL) quantification and genotypic drug resistance testing in off-site high-throughput laboratories.(More)
Background: As part of its policy to shift monitoring of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to primary health care (PHC) workers, the Ministry of Health of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) tested the feasibility of using dried blood spots (DBS) for viral load (VL) quantification and genotypic drug resistance testing in off-site high-throughput laboratories.(More)
Injection drug users (IDUs) were heavily affected by the tuberculosis (TB) resurgence in New York City in the 1990s. We assessed the effectiveness of screening for latent TB infection in methadone users and of selective treatment with isoniazid. Risk for future TB was classified as low or high on the basis of tuberculin, anergy, and HIV test results. The(More)