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Stavudine (d4T) is now recommended at the dose of 30 mg twice daily for all adult and adolescent patients regardless of body weight.[A-III] After the publication of WHO's 2006 guidelines for HIV therapy in adults and adolescents, the WHO Guidelines Development Group (GDG) reviewed evidence for the use of stavudine (d4T) at reduced doses. Previously, the(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate a multi-institutional outbreak of highly resistant tuberculosis and evaluate patient outcome. DESIGN Epidemiologic investigation of every tuberculosis case reported in New York City. SETTING Patients cared for at all public and nonpublic institutions from January 1, 1990, to August 1, 1993 (43 months). PATIENTS We reviewed(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate possible cross-contamination of laboratory specimens, as suggested by an increased incidence of newly diagnosed patients with tuberculosis, many of whom had all negative smears for acid-fast bacilli and only one positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture referred to as "negative smears, one positive" or NSOP. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND A 1991 survey showed high levels of drug resistance among tuberculosis patients in New York, NY. As a result, the tuberculosis control program was strengthened, including expanded use of directly observed therapy and improved infection control. METHODS We collected isolates from every patient in New York City with a positive culture for(More)
BACKGROUND From 1978 through 1992, the number of patients with tuberculosis in New York City nearly tripled, and the proportion of such patients who had drug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis more than doubled. METHODS We reviewed, confirmed, and analyzed data obtained during the surveillance of patients with tuberculosis. RESULTS From(More)
2 The creation of the present guidelines would not have been possible without the participation of numerous experts. This document was developed through an expert consultation process in which account was taken of current scientifi c evidence and the state of the art in the treatment of HIV infection. The primary focus was the context of resource-limited(More)
Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is recognised as an important component of collaborative tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activities to reduce the burden of TB in people living with HIV (PLHIV). However, there has been little in the way of IPT implementation at country level. This failure has resulted in a recent call to arms(More)