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As a result of selective breeding, NC900 mice exhibit isolation-induced attacks in a social interaction test, whereas NC100 mice do not attack but freeze instead. Administration of the D1 receptor agonist dihydrexidine was previously shown to reduce aggression in NC900 mice and nonagonistic approaches in NC100 mice. This resulted from induction of a marked(More)
In a previous study, it was demonstrated that the high rates of social reactivity exhibited by isolated male mice in a dyadic encounter were mediated, at least in part, by an increased sensitivity of the D1 dopamine receptors. The present research was guided by the hypothesis that the behavioral effects of isolation are reversible, and that changes in(More)
The study examined the effects of isolation housing and the role of D1 dopamine receptors on isolation-induced social and nonsocial (acoustic startle) reactivity in mice high (C57BL/6) and low (A) in motor activity. Isolation housing had no effect on acoustic startle but increased strain-specific forms of social reactivity. The D1 agonist dihydrexidine(More)
Following isolation housing, mice typically exhibit heightened emotional reactivity to mild social stimulation. Aggression, social avoidance and a variety of defensive behaviors that differ in terms of motor activation (e.g. freezing, escape) can be observed depending on strain. Previous studies suggested that D(2)-like dopamine (DA) receptors play an(More)
We examined the effects of the D2-like dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole on social-emotional reactivity in two inbred mouse strains. An important objective of this study was to determine whether these effects could be modulated by differential housing conditions (i.e., isolation versus group housing). Moreover, as motor activity is an important control(More)
Robust individual differences in social behavior have been obtained by selectively breeding Institute for Cancer Research mice for high and low levels of aggression. As previously shown, when paired with a non-selected group-housed partner mouse, NC900 mice exhibit isolation-induced aggression. Conversely, NC100 mice fail to attack, freezing upon social(More)
The role of various physical and lifestyle factors in determining axial bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar segment of the spine, as measured by dual-photon absorptiometry, and peripheral BMD at the distal third of the radius, as measured by single-photon absorptiometry, was assessed in 299 healthy white children of both sexes, aged 6 to 18 years. The(More)
Interleukin-2 (IL-2), the protypical T cell growth factor and immunoregulatory cytokine produced by lymphocytes, has been implicated as a brain neurotrophic factor and neuromodulator. The consequences of the absence of endogenous IL-2 on brain development and function were unknown. Brain IL-2 receptors are enriched in the hippocampal formation, an area(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of repeated cigarette smoking on fetal heart rate (FHR) characteristics. METHODS Fifteen chronic smokers who were between 28 and 36 weeks' gestation were evaluated during an 8-hour smoking session. Baseline FHR and reactivity were evaluated before an initial cigarette and 4 hours later (after the fourth cigarette), when(More)
Due to the regional expression of D3 dopamine receptors in limbic areas of the brain, there has been considerable interest in the potential role of this receptor subtype in mediating emotional behavior. Previous studies in habituated rats have shown that the putative dopamine D3 receptor antagonist 5,6-dimethoxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)indan (PNU 99194A)(More)