Paula G. Williams

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OBJECTIVE There is conflicting evidence regarding the utility of stress management training in the treatment of diabetes. The few studies that have shown a therapeutic effect of stress management have used time-intensive individual therapy. Unfortunately, widespread use of such interventions is not practical. The aim of the present investigation is to(More)
BACKGROUND Executive functioning (EF) refers to the set of neurocognitive processes that facilitate novel problem solving, modification of behavior in response to environmental changes, planning and generating strategies for complex actions, and ability to override pre-potent behavioral and emotional responses to engage in goal-directed behavior. PURPOSE(More)
Hardiness has been hypothesized to moderate the impact of stress on health by influencing coping responses, but little attention has been focused upon these associations. This study examined the relationship among hardiness, coping, and illness while attending to recent criticisms of the hardiness literature including the potential overlap with neuroticism,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether traits of normal personality are associated with variations in glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A longitudinal cohort study was conducted using data from 105 type 2 diabetic patients in a clinical trial of a stress management intervention. Before treatment assignment, patients(More)
In this article, a biopsychosocial model of adolescent development is used as an organizing framework for a review of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention research with adolescent populations. During adolescence many critical health behaviors emerge, affecting future disease outcomes in adulthood. In addition, most of the predominant causes of(More)
BACKGROUND Hemodynamic responses to exercise were assessed in patients with varying degrees of chronic heart failure (CHF) to determine the feasibility of using bioreactance during exercise testing in multicenter studies of CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS A total of 210 symptomatic CHF patients and 22 subjects without heart failure were subjected to(More)
Maintenance of relationship quality requires self-regulation of emotion and social behavior, and women often display greater effort in this regard than do men. Furthermore, such efforts can deplete the limited capacity for self-regulation. In recent models of self-regulation, resting level of respiratory sinus arrhythmia, quantified as high-frequency heart(More)
Peak oxygen consumption (VO(2) ) during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a powerful predictor of survival, providing an indirect assessment of cardiac output (CO). Noninvasive indices of CO derived from bioreactance methodology would add significantly to peak VO(2) as a means of risk-stratifying patients with heart failure. In this study, 127(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to assess the association of sleep disturbance with psychological characteristics, somatic symptoms and previously identified risk factors. METHODS Data were from 148,938 postmenopausal women enrolled in The Women's Health Initiative who provided cross-sectional information about psychological characteristics, somatic(More)