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Local adaptations within species are often governed by several interacting genes scattered throughout the genome. Single-locus models of selection cannot explain the maintenance of such complex variation because recombination separates co-adapted alleles. Here we report a previously unrecognized type of intraspecific multi-locus genetic variation that has(More)
In fungi, sexual identity is determined by specialized genomic regions called MAT loci which are the equivalent to sex chromosomes in some animals and plants. Usually, only two sexes or mating types exist, which are determined by two alternate sets of genes (or alleles) at the MAT locus (bipolar system). However, in the phylum Basidiomycota, a unique(More)
Yeasts are unicellular fungi that do not form fruiting bodies. Although the yeast lifestyle has evolved multiple times, most known species belong to the subphylum Saccharomycotina (syn. Hemiascomycota, hereafter yeasts). This diverse group includes the premier eukaryotic model system, Saccharomyces cerevisiae; the common human commensal and opportunistic(More)
The natural biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the best known unicellular model eukaryote, remains poorly documented and understood although recent progress has started to change this situation. Studies carried out recently in the Northern Hemisphere revealed the existence of wild populations associated with oak trees in North America, Asia, and in the(More)
The genus Saccharomyces currently includes eight species in addition to the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, most of which can be consistently isolated from tree bark and soil. We recently found sympatric pairs of Saccharomyces species, composed of one cryotolerant and one thermotolerant species in oak bark samples of various geographic origins. In(More)
We studied the molecular epidemiology of dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3) in Brazil and Paraguay by analyzing the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (5' and 3'UTRs) and the E protein gene of viruses isolated between 2002 and 2004. Both 5' and 3'UTRs were highly conserved. However, the 3'UTR of two isolates from Brazil contained eight nucleotide deletions compared(More)
Rhodosporidium toruloides is a heterothallic, bipolar, red yeast that belongs to the Sporidiobolales, an order within a major lineage of basidiomycetes, the Pucciniomycotina. In contrast to other basidiomycetes, considerably less is known about the nature of the mating type (MAT) loci that control sexual reproduction in this lineage. Three genes (RHA1,(More)
Non-flying mammal richness and distribution were studied in a landscape matrix consisting of a highly managed agro-silvo-pastoral system dominated by a cork oak woodland (montado) to test the predictions of the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis (IDH). Sampling consisted on detection of mammalian signs of presence, along with the use of scent stations and(More)
Recent evidence suggests that Paracoccidioides species have the potential to undergo sexual reproduction, although no sexual cycle has been identified either in nature or under laboratory conditions. In the present work we detected low expression levels of the heterothallic MAT loci genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2, the α-pheromone (PBα) gene, and the α- and(More)
BACKGROUND The red yeasts are an early diverged group of basidiomycetes comprising sexual and asexual species. Sexuality is based on two compatible mating types and sexual identity is determined by MAT loci that encode homeodomain transcription factors, peptide pheromones and their receptors. The objective of the present study was to investigate the(More)