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Polar auxin transport plays a key role in the regulation of plant growth and development. To identify genes involved in this process, we have developed a genetic procedure to screen for mutants of Arabidopsis that are altered in their response to auxin transport inhibitors. We recovered a total of 16 independent mutants that defined seven genes, called(More)
The NPH1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a 120-kilodalton serine-threonine protein kinase hypothesized to function as a photoreceptor for phototropism. When expressed in insect cells, the NPH1 protein is phosphorylated in response to blue light irradiation. The biochemical and photochemical properties of the photosensitive protein reflect those of the(More)
Accumulation of misfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers an adaptive stress response-termed the unfolded protein response (UPR)-mediated by the ER transmembrane protein kinase and endoribonuclease inositol-requiring enzyme-1alpha (IRE1alpha). We investigated UPR signaling events in mice in the absence of the proapoptotic BCL-2 family(More)
The recently launched Brazilian "forest certificates" market is expected to reduce environmental compliance costs for landowners through an offset mechanism, after a long history of conservation laws based in command-and-control and strict rules. In this paper we assessed potential costs and evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the instrument when(More)
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