Paula A Krauter

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A new epifluorescent microscopy based method using 5-cyano-2, 3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) and 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl) aminofluoroscein (DTAF) was developed for quantifying total microbial biomass and evaluating levels of microbial activity. CTC is a tetrazolium dye that forms fluorescent intracellular formazan when biologically reduced by(More)
Deletion experiments have defined two stretches of DNA (genetic elements), lying close to the promoter for a human gene for metallothionein, that separately mediate the induction of the gene by heavy metal ions, particularly cadmium, and by glucocorticoid hormones. The element responsible for induction by cadmium is duplicated, yet a single copy is fully(More)
Decontamination and recovery of a facility or outdoor area after a wide-area biological incident involving a highly persistent agent (eg, Bacillus anthracis spores) is a complex process that requires extensive information and significant resources, which are likely to be limited, particularly if multiple facilities or areas are affected. This article(More)
Chromium can be removed from ground water by the unicellular yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Local ground water maintains chromium as CrO42- because of bicarbonate buffering and pH and Eh conditions (8.2 and +343 mV, respectively). In laboratory studies, we used commercially available, nonpathogenic S. cerevisiae to remove hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from(More)
An urban wide-area recovery and restoration effort following a large-scale biological release will require extensive resources and tax the capabilities of government authorities. Further, the number of private decontamination contractors available may not be sufficient to respond to the needs. These resource limitations could create the need for(More)
We have developed a method to remove perchlorate (14-27 microg/L) and nitrate (48 mg/L) from contaminated groundwater using a wetland bioreactor. The bioreactor has operated continuously in a remote field location for more than 2 yr with a stable ecosystem of indigenous organisms. This study assesses the bioreactorfor long-term perchlorate and nitrate(More)
This project examined dry, fluidized spore reaerosolization in a heating, ventilating, and air conditioning duct system. Experiments using spores of Bacillus atrophaeus, a nonpathogenic surrogate for Bacillus anthracis, were conducted to delineate the extent of spore reaerosolization behavior under normal indoor airflow conditions. Short-term (five(More)
Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on(More)
A first understanding of the molecular events on the DNA level, underlying transcriptional regulation by steroid hormones, has been approached in the last 3 years by means of protein/DNA interaction studies, using purified receptors. This work summarizes our knowledge of how purified glucocorticoid and progestine receptors interact with their cognate(More)
This is an informal report intended primarily for internal or limited external distribution. The opinions and conclusions stated are those of the author and may or may not be those of the Laboratory. Executive Summary Nitrate contamination of California drinking water supplies is pervasive– about 10% of California public drinking water supply wells produce(More)