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BACKGROUND Training within a proficiency-based virtual reality (VR) curriculum may reduce errors during real surgical procedures. This study used a scientific methodology for development of a VR training curriculum for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS Inexperienced (had performed fewer than ten laparoscopic cholecystectomies), intermediate (20-50)(More)
INTRODUCTION The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic precision of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the detection of local or distant recurrence following resectional surgery for colon and rectal cancer. METHODS Quantitative meta-analysis was performed on 20 studies, comparing serum CEA with radiological imaging and/or pathology in(More)
Development of peritoneal metastasis is a significant issue in the treatment of abdominal cancers. Primary interaction between tumour cells and the mesothelium is a vital step in initiating this process. Our aim was to determine the role of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in mesothelial–tumour adhesion and the effectiveness of therapeutic(More)
Chemokines promote tumour progression by enhancing proliferation and modifying the immune response. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that CCL2 monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) contributes to the progression of colorectal cancer by influencing the number and distribution of tumour associated macrophages (TAMs). Chemokine expression(More)
INTRODUCTION Routinely collected data sets are increasingly used for research, financial reimbursement and health service planning. High quality data are necessary for reliable analysis. This study aims to assess the published accuracy of routinely collected data sets in Great Britain. METHODS Systematic searches of the EMBASE, PUBMED, OVID and Cochrane(More)
Elderly patients are often regarded as high-risk patients for major abdominal surgery because of a lack of functional reserve and associated medical comorbidities. The aim of this systematic review and pooled analysis was to review the current data published regarding the differences in operative outcomes of laparoscopic and open surgery in the elderly(More)
The role of the pathologist in the preoperative diagnosis of phyllodes tumours of the breast is critical to appropriate surgical planning. However, reliable differentiation of phyllodes tumour from cellular fibroadenoma remains difficult. Preoperative diagnostic accuracy allows correct surgical treatment, avoiding the pitfalls of reoperation because of(More)
The role of laparoscopic surgery for patients with ileocecal Crohn’s disease is a contentious issue. This metaanalysis aimed to compare open resection with laparoscopically assisted resection for ileocecal Crohn’s disease. A literature search of the Medline, Ovid, Embase, and Cochrane databases was performed to identify comparative studies reporting(More)
INTRODUCTION Virtual reality (VR) simulation provides unique training opportunities. This study evaluates whether the deliberate practice (DP) can be successfully applied to simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for enhancement of the quality of surgical skills. METHODS Twenty-six inexperienced surgeons underwent a training program for LC on a VR(More)
The purpose of the study was to assess the role of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the diagnosis of appendicitis in patients presenting with acute right iliac fossa (RIF) pain and comparing its performance with the assessment made by experienced clinicians and the Alvarado score. After training and testing an ANN, data from 60 patients presenting with(More)