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The ability to express or deplete proteins in living cells is crucial for the study of biological processes. Viral vectors are often useful to deliver DNA constructs to cells that are difficult to transfect by other methods. Lentiviruses have the additional advantage of being able to integrate into the genomes of non-dividing mammalian cells. However,(More)
Cell membrane proteins play an important role in tissue architecture and cell-cell communication. We hypothesize that segmentation and multidimensional characterization of the distribution of cell membrane proteins, on a cell-by-cell basis, enable improved classification of treatment groups and identify important characteristics that can otherwise be(More)
Despite major advances in understanding the molecular and genetic basis of cancer, metastasis remains the cause of >90% of cancer-related mortality. Understanding metastasis initiation and progression is critical to developing new therapeutic strategies to treat and prevent metastatic disease. Prevailing theories hypothesize that metastases are seeded by(More)
Estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptor-negative triple-negative breast cancers encompass the most clinically challenging subtype for which targeted therapeutics are lacking. We find that triple-negative tumors exhibit elevated MYC expression, as well as altered expression of MYC regulatory genes, resulting in increased activity of the MYC pathway. In(More)
Nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) seeded in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) form polarized acini and, in doing so, transit from a disorganized proliferating state to an organized growth-arrested state. We hypothesized that the gene expression pattern of organized and growth-arrested HMECs would share similarities with breast(More)
Targeted therapies and the consequent adoption of "personalized" oncology have achieved notable successes in some cancers; however, significant problems remain with this approach. Many targeted therapies are highly toxic, costs are extremely high, and most patients experience relapse after a few disease-free months. Relapses arise from genetic heterogeneity(More)
Understanding the mechanisms underlying ErbB3 overexpression in breast cancer will facilitate the rational design of therapies to disrupt ErbB2-ErbB3 oncogenic function. Although ErbB3 overexpression is frequently observed in breast cancer, the factors mediating its aberrant expression are poorly understood. In particular, the ErbB3 gene is not(More)
BORIS (CTCFL) is the only known paralog of the versatile regulatory protein CTCF, a multifunctional DNA binding protein that mediates distinct gene regulatory functions involved in cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Unlike CTCF, the expression of BORIS is normally restricted to specific cells in testes (the only cells where CTCF is not expressed),(More)
INTRODUCTION Most human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) cultured from histologically normal breast tissues enter a senescent state termed stasis after 5 to 20 population doublings. These senescent cells display increased size, contain senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity, and express cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p16INK4A (CDKN2A; p16).(More)