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The ability to express or deplete proteins in living cells is crucial for the study of biological processes. Viral vectors are often useful to deliver DNA constructs to cells that are difficult to transfect by other methods. Lentiviruses have the additional advantage of being able to integrate into the genomes of non-dividing mammalian cells. However,(More)
Cell membrane proteins play an important role in tissue architecture and cell-cell communication. We hypothesize that segmentation and multidimensional characterization of the distribution of cell membrane proteins, on a cell-by-cell basis, enable improved classification of treatment groups and identify important characteristics that can otherwise be(More)
Chromosome 20q13.2 is amplified in 20-30% of early-stage breast tumors and is associated with poor prognosis. Detailed mapping of the amplified region using molecular cytogenetics, positional cloning and genomic sequencing culminated in a detailed molecular description of the candidate oncogene ZNF217. ZNF217 proteins resemble Kruppel-like transcription(More)
Oval cells and biliary epithelial cells were isolated from livers of rats fed a choline-deficient diet containing 0.1% ethionine and from normal rat livers, respectively. Nonparenchymal cell suspensions prepared from these livers by collagenase perfusion followed by digestion of undissociated tissue with 0.1% collagenase, 0.1% Pronase, and 0.004% DNase I(More)
Two epithelial cell lines designated LE/2 and LE/6 were established from cells isolated by centrifugal elutriation from the livers of carcinogen-treated rats. Both cell lines exhibit some characteristics of fetal liver cells, such as the expression of the 2.3-kilobase alpha-fetoprotein mRNA, aldolase A, and lactate dehydrogenases 4 and 5. Primary cultures(More)
Despite major advances in understanding the molecular and genetic basis of cancer, metastasis remains the cause of >90% of cancer-related mortality. Understanding metastasis initiation and progression is critical to developing new therapeutic strategies to treat and prevent metastatic disease. Prevailing theories hypothesize that metastases are seeded by(More)
Estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptor-negative triple-negative breast cancers encompass the most clinically challenging subtype for which targeted therapeutics are lacking. We find that triple-negative tumors exhibit elevated MYC expression, as well as altered expression of MYC regulatory genes, resulting in increased activity of the MYC pathway. In(More)
The functional consequences of overexpression of a candidate oncogene on chromosome 20q13.2, ZNF217, were examined by transducing the gene into finite life span human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). In four independent experiments, ZNF217-transduced cultures gave rise to immortalized cells. HMECs that overcame senescence initially exhibited heterogeneous(More)
Nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) seeded in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) form polarized acini and, in doing so, transit from a disorganized proliferating state to an organized growth-arrested state. We hypothesized that the gene expression pattern of organized and growth-arrested HMECs would share similarities with breast(More)