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The ability to express or deplete proteins in living cells is crucial for the study of biological processes. Viral vectors are often useful to deliver DNA constructs to cells that are difficult to transfect by other methods. Lentiviruses have the additional advantage of being able to integrate into the genomes of non-dividing mammalian cells. However,(More)
Despite major advances in understanding the molecular and genetic basis of cancer, metastasis remains the cause of >90% of cancer-related mortality. Understanding metastasis initiation and progression is critical to developing new therapeutic strategies to treat and prevent metastatic disease. Prevailing theories hypothesize that metastases are seeded by(More)
Telomere erosion and subsequent dysfunction limits the proliferation of normal human cells by a process termed replicative senescence. Replicative senescence is thought to suppress tumorigenesis by establishing an essentially irreversible growth arrest that requires activities of the p53 and pRB tumor suppressor proteins. We show that, depending on(More)
Transition through telomere crisis is thought to be a crucial event in the development of most breast carcinomas. Our goal in this study was to determine where this occurs in the context of histologically defined breast cancer progression. To this end, we assessed genome instability (using fluorescence in situ hybridization) and other features associated(More)
We report here the molecular cloning of an approximately 1-Mb region of recurrent amplification at 20q13.2 in breast cancer and other tumors and the delineation of a 260-kb common region of amplification. Analysis of the 1-Mb region produced evidence for five genes, ZNF217, ZNF218, and NABC1, PIC1L (PIC1-like), CYP24, and a pseudogene CRP (Cyclophillin(More)
In this study we investigated whether a 60 Hz magnetic field can act at the cellular level to influence the growth of human estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells. Our experimental design assessed cell proliferation of a human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, in the absence or the presence of melatonin which inhibits growth at a physiological concentration(More)
It has been proposed that ZNF217, which is amplified at 20q13 in various tumors, plays a key role during neoplastic transformation. ZNF217 has been purified in complexes that contain repressor proteins such as CtBP2, suggesting that it acts as a transcriptional repressor. However, the function of ZNF217 has not been well characterized due to a lack of known(More)
Tankyrase (TANK1) is a human telomere-associated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) that binds the telomere-binding protein TRF1 and increases telomere length when overexpressed. Here we report characterization of a second human tankyrase, tankyrase 2 (TANK2), which can also interact with TRF1 but has properties distinct from those of TANK1. TANK2 is(More)
The effects of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) were studied in closely related human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), both finite-life-span 184 cells and immortal derivatives, 184A1S, and 184A1L5R, which differ in their cell cycle responses to TGF-beta but express type I and type II TGF-beta receptors and retain TGF-beta induction of(More)
Examination of the process of immortal transformation in early passages of two human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) lines suggests the involvement of an epigenetic step. These lines, 184A1 and 184B5, arose after in vitro exposure of finite lifespan 184 HMEC to a chemical carcinogen, and both are clonally derived. Although early-passage mass cultures of(More)