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PURPOSE Patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have profound immune defects and limited treatment options. Given the dramatic activity of lenalidomide in other B-cell malignancies and its pleotropic immunomodulatory effects, we conducted a phase II trial of this agent in CLL. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with relapsed or(More)
CD163, a monocyte and macrophage-specific surface glycoprotein, which is increased by interleukin-10 and glucocorticoids, is a scavenger receptor for hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes. We report a rapid and highly reproducible rise in soluble CD163 in the plasma of human volunteers given intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also show that LPS induces(More)
The immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) lenalidomide and actimid (also known as CC-4047) are thalidomide analogues which are more potent than their parental compound. In combination with rituximab, we have previously demonstrated that IMiDs have synergistic in vivo anti-tumour activity in preclinical studies in a human lymphoma severe combined immunodeficiency(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), treatment with lenalidomide induces a unique, previously uncharacterized, immune response called tumor flare reaction (TFR). The clinical significance of this reaction remains unknown. METHODS Forty-five patients with CLL who were treated with lenalidomide in a phase 2 clinical trial were(More)
Fluorescent dyes that stain cell membranes or cytoplasm and then partition between daughter cells at division have been used in conjunction with flow cytometry to measure the proliferation of cells. In this paper, using peripheral blood mononuclear cells responding to tetanus toxoid, we describe an extension of this dye methodology to calculate the(More)
Human memory T cells present in ovarian tumor ascites fluids fail to respond normally to stimulation via the T cell receptor (TCR). This immunosuppression is manifested by decreases in NF-κB and NFAT activation, IFN-γ production, and cell proliferation in response to TCR stimulation with immobilized antibodies to CD3 and CD28. The anergy of the(More)
BACKGROUND There has been much debate regarding the refugee health situation in the UK. However most of the existing literature fails to take account of the opinions of refugees themselves. This study was established to determine the views of asylum seekers and refugees on their overall experiences in primary care and to suggest improvements to their care.(More)
BACKGROUND Considerable evidence implicates CD40 signaling in the pathogenesis of atheromas. Exposure to CD40 ligand induces platelet-leukocyte conjugation, a heightened expression of inflammatory cytokines, matrix-degrading enzymes, and procoagulant factors. OBJECTIVES To investigate the association between plasma soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and(More)
BACKGROUND In the United States, asthma prevalence is particularly high among urban children. Although the underlying immune mechanism contributing to asthma has not been identified, having impaired T regulatory (Treg) cells at birth may be a determining factor in urban children. The objective of this study was to compare Treg phenotype and function in cord(More)
6609 Background: Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein is associated with treatment resistance and poor prognosis in pts with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Preclinical studies have shown that oblimersen (Obl) enhances apoptosis induced by fludarabine (Flu) and rituximab (Rit). Increased CR and nPR in a phase 3 study confirmed the clinical benefit of(More)