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expecting that more and richer people will demand more from the land, cultivating wider fields, logging more forests, and pressing nature, comes naturally. the past half-century of disciplined and dematerializing demand and more intense and efficient land use encourage a rational hope that humanity's pressure will not overwhelm nature. Beginning with the(More)
In the past, relations of diffusive resistance to stomatal geometry have concerned circular pores or pores that are replaced by equivalent circles of the same area. We calculated the resistance for general shapes that include the realistic slit. The resistance comprises two terms. The first is an outer resistance that depends only on ventilation and leaf(More)
Learning actors' leverage for change along the journey to sustainability requires quantifying the component forces of environmental impact and integrating them. Population, income, consumers' behavior, and producers' efficiency jointly force impact. Here, we renovate the "IPAT Identity" to identify actors with the forces. Forcing impact I are P for(More)
Amid widespread reports of deforestation, some nations have nevertheless experienced transitions from deforestation to reforestation. In a causal relationship, the Forest Identity relates the carbon sequestered in forests to the changing variables of national or regional forest area, growing stock density per area, biomass per growing stock volume, and(More)
Like cities, forests grow by spreading out or by growing denser. Both inventories taken steadily by a single nation and other inventories gathered recently from many nations by the United Nations confirm the asynchronous effects of changing area and of density or volume per hectare. United States forests spread little after 1953, while growing density per(More)