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BACKGROUND Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal lung disease with inevitable loss of lung function. The CAPACITY programme (studies 004 and 006) was designed to confirm the results of a phase 2 study that suggested that pirfenidone, a novel antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory drug, reduces deterioration in lung function in patients with(More)
BACKGROUND In two of three phase 3 trials, pirfenidone, an oral antifibrotic therapy, reduced disease progression, as measured by the decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) or vital capacity, in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; in the third trial, this end point was not achieved. We sought to confirm the beneficial effect of pirfenidone on(More)
Hyaluronan (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan constituent of extracellular matrix. In its native form HA exists as a high molecular weight polymer, but during inflammation lower molecular weight fragments accumulate. We have identified a collection of inflammatory genes induced in macrophages by HA fragments but not by high molecular weight HA. These include(More)
Accumulation and turnover of extracellular matrix components are the hallmarks of tissue injury. Fragmented hyaluronan stimulates the expression of inflammatory genes by a variety of immune cells at the injury site. Hyaluronan binds to a number of cell surface proteins on various cell types. Hyaluronan fragments signal through both Toll-like receptor (TLR)(More)
Interleukin (IL)-13 is a key mediator of tissue fibrosis caused by T helper cell type 2 inflammation. We hypothesized that the fibrogenic effects of IL-13 are mediated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. To test this hypothesis we compared the regulation of TGF-beta in lungs from wild-type mice and CC10-IL-13 mice in which IL-13 overexpression causes(More)
A hallmark of tissue injury and repair is the turnover of extracellular matrix components. This review focuses on the role of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan in tissue injury and repair. Both the synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix are critical contributors to tissue repair and remodeling. Fragmented hyaluronan accumulates during tissue(More)
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a non-neoplastic pulmonary disease that is characterized by the formation of scar tissue within the lungs in the absence of any known provocation. IPF is a rare disease which affects approximately 5 million persons worldwide. The prevalence is estimated to be slightly greater in men (20.2/100,000) than in women(More)
Gas exchange in the lung occurs within alveoli, air-filled sacs composed of type 2 and type 1 epithelial cells (AEC2s and AEC1s), capillaries, and various resident mesenchymal cells. Here, we use a combination of in vivo clonal lineage analysis, different injury/repair systems, and in vitro culture of purified cell populations to obtain new information(More)
CD44 is a transmembrane adhesion molecule and hemopoietic CD44 has an essential role in hyaluronan clearance and resolution of noninfectious lung injury. In this study, we examined the role of CD44 in acute pulmonary inflammation and in the regulation of LPS-TLR signaling. Following intratracheally LPS treatment, CD44(-/-) mice demonstrated an exaggerated(More)
Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of infection, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, which together account for most obesity-related morbidity and mortality. Decreased expression of leptin or of functional leptin receptors results in hyperphagia, decreased energy expenditure, and obesity. It is unclear, however, whether defective(More)