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Memory retrieval is not a passive phenomenon. Instead, it triggers a number of processes that either reinforce or alter stored information. Retrieval is thought to activate a second memory consolidation cascade (reconsolidation) that requires protein synthesis. Here, we show that the temporal dynamics of memory reconsolidation are dependent on the strength(More)
Throughout adulthood, new neurons are continuously added to the dentate gyrus, a hippocampal subregion that is important in spatial learning. Whether these adult-generated granule cells become functionally integrated into memory networks is not known. We used immunohistochemical approaches to visualize the recruitment of new neurons into circuits supporting(More)
Although the molecular, cellular, and systems mechanisms required for initial memory processing have been intensively investigated, those underlying permanent memory storage remain elusive. We present neuroanatomical, pharmacological, and genetic results demonstrating that the anterior cingulate cortex plays a critical role in remote memory for contextual(More)
A fundamental question in memory research is how our brains can form enduring memories. In humans, memories of everyday life depend initially on the medial temporal lobe system, including the hippocampus. As these memories mature, they are thought to become increasingly dependent on other brain regions such as the cortex. Little is understood about how new(More)
The authors describe how (a) the timing of hippocampal lesions and (b) the behavioral-representational demands of the task affect the requirement for the hippocampus in contextual fear conditioning. Post- but not pretraining lesions of the hippocampus greatly reduced contextual fear conditioning. In contrast, pretraining lesions of the hippocampus abolished(More)
The cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) is a nuclear protein that modulates the transcription of genes with cAMP responsive elements in their promoters. Increases in the concentration of either calcium or cAMP can trigger the phosphorylation and activation of CREB. This transcription factor is a component of intracellular signaling events that(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that global depletion of adult hippocampal neurogenesis influences its function and that the timing of the depletion affects the deficits. However, the behavioral roles of adult-born neurons during their establishment of projections to CA3 pyramidal neurons remain largely unknown. We used a combination of retroviral and(More)
Multiple recent human imaging studies have suggested that the structure of the brain can change with learning. To investigate the mechanism behind such structural plasticity, we sought to determine whether maze learning in mice induces brain shape changes that are detectable by MRI and whether such changes are specific to the type of learning. Here we(More)
BACKGROUND The cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) is a transcription factor the activity of which is modulated by increases in the intracellular levels of cAMP and calcium. Results from studies with Aplysia, Drosophila and mice indicate that CREB-activated transcription is required for long-term memory. Furthermore, a recent study found that(More)
The ability to learn and remember individuals is critical for the stability of social groups. Social recognition reflects the ability of mice to identify and remember conspecifics. Social recognition is assessed as a decrease in spontaneous investigation behaviors observed in a mouse reexposed to a familiar conspecific. Our results demonstrate that(More)