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Memory retrieval is not a passive phenomenon. Instead, it triggers a number of processes that either reinforce or alter stored information. Retrieval is thought to activate a second memory consolidation cascade (reconsolidation) that requires protein synthesis. Here, we show that the temporal dynamics of memory reconsolidation are dependent on the strength(More)
A fundamental question in memory research is how our brains can form enduring memories. In humans, memories of everyday life depend initially on the medial temporal lobe system, including the hippocampus. As these memories mature, they are thought to become increasingly dependent on other brain regions such as the cortex. Little is understood about how new(More)
Throughout adulthood, new neurons are continuously added to the dentate gyrus, a hippocampal subregion that is important in spatial learning. Whether these adult-generated granule cells become functionally integrated into memory networks is not known. We used immunohistochemical approaches to visualize the recruitment of new neurons into circuits supporting(More)
Although the molecular, cellular, and systems mechanisms required for initial memory processing have been intensively investigated, those underlying permanent memory storage remain elusive. We present neuroanatomical, pharmacological, and genetic results demonstrating that the anterior cingulate cortex plays a critical role in remote memory for contextual(More)
The authors describe how (a) the timing of hippocampal lesions and (b) the behavioral-representational demands of the task affect the requirement for the hippocampus in contextual fear conditioning. Post- but not pretraining lesions of the hippocampus greatly reduced contextual fear conditioning. In contrast, pretraining lesions of the hippocampus abolished(More)
The cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) is a nuclear protein that modulates the transcription of genes with cAMP responsive elements in their promoters. Increases in the concentration of either calcium or cAMP can trigger the phosphorylation and activation of CREB. This transcription factor is a component of intracellular signaling events that(More)
The ability to learn and remember individuals is critical for the stability of social groups. Social recognition reflects the ability of mice to identify and remember conspecifics. Social recognition is assessed as a decrease in spontaneous investigation behaviors observed in a mouse reexposed to a familiar conspecific. Our results demonstrate that(More)
Cortical plasticity seems to be critical for the establishment of permanent memory traces. Little is known, however, about the molecular and cellular processes that support consolidation of memories in cortical networks. Here we show that mice heterozygous for a null mutation of alpha-calcium-calmodulin kinase II (alpha-CaMKII+/-) show normal learning and(More)
Although the hippocampus plays a crucial role in the formation of spatial memories, as these memories mature they may become additionally (or even exclusively) dependent on extrahippocampal structures. However, the identity of these extrahippocampal structures that support remote spatial memory is currently not known. Using a Morris water-maze task, we show(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that global depletion of adult hippocampal neurogenesis influences its function and that the timing of the depletion affects the deficits. However, the behavioral roles of adult-born neurons during their establishment of projections to CA3 pyramidal neurons remain largely unknown. We used a combination of retroviral and(More)