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Two experiments were conducted to determine whether adult age differences in working memory should be attributed to less efficient processing, a smaller working memory storage capacity, or both. In Experiment 1, young, middle-age, and older adults solved three addition problems before giving the answers to any. Older adults added as well as young and(More)
Three hypotheses regarding the locus of age differences in working memory were examined in an experiment in which young, middle-aged, and old adults remembered the names of persons standing in line while also performing mental addition. Instructions as to the relative importance of these two tasks were manipulated. The results are highly compatible with the(More)
Four experiments are reported in which participants attempted to remember three or six concrete nouns, presented as pictures, spoken words, or printed words, while also verifying the accuracy of sentences. Hypotheses meant to explain the higher recall of pictures and spoken words over printed words were tested. Increasing the difficulty and changing the(More)
Subjects constructed four-term linear orders from three sentences expressing the relationships between adjacent elements in the order. Successful performance was more likely when the second sentence introduced only one element not mentioned in the first sentence rather than two new elements and when the second and third sentences introduced new elements as(More)
An experiment was conducted to see if the laboratory findings of poorer recognition memory performance and more cautious responding by elderly adults could be duplicated in a nonlaboratory setting using common, everyday objects. Thirty old and 30 young adults were asked to sort drawings of the top side of a United States penny and of a pushbutton telephone(More)
The performance of 97 young and 91 old persons were compared to determine if a deficiency in working memory resources for processing, storage, or allocation could be detected. Persons simultaneously performed a storage and one of two processing tasks while instructed to allocate resources to processing, storage, or both tasks. The storage task involved(More)
The authors examined ratings of facial attractiveness, rankings of faces and reasons given by young, middle-aged, and older men and women for young, middle-aged, and older male and female face attractiveness. No support for predictions derived from similarity, interest, and cohort hypotheses was obtained. In support of the expertise hypothesis, young and(More)
In three experiments, we examined the separate cognitive demands of processing and storage in working memory and looked at how effective the coordination was when items for storage varied in format/modality. A sentence verification task involving arithmetic facts was combined with a span task involving two to six items presented in picture, printed word, or(More)
  • P W Foos
  • 1980
Three experiments investigated the construction of one- and two-dimensional cognitive maps from presented sentences containing information about adjacent pairs of items in the map. Sentences were of the form The item is X of the item or The item has the item on its X side when items were high-frequency nouns and X was the adjective north, south, east, or(More)
This work combines presentation formats to test whether bimodal conditions offer advantages or disadvantages relative to single formats in working memory performance. A dual task that included recall of 3 or 6 items while verifying the accuracy of math sentences was used in 2 experiments. When comparisons were made between single- and dual-format(More)