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Three hypotheses regarding the locus of age differences in working memory were examined in an experiment in which young, middle-aged, and old adults remembered the names of persons standing in line while also performing mental addition. Instructions as to the relative importance of these two tasks were manipulated. The results are highly compatible with the(More)
The performance of 97 young and 91 old persons were compared to determine if a deficiency in working memory resources for processing, storage, or allocation could be detected. Persons simultaneously performed a storage and one of two processing tasks while instructed to allocate resources to processing, storage, or both tasks. The storage task involved(More)
Three experiments investigated the construction of one- and two-dimensional cognitive maps from presented sentences containing information about adjacent pairs of items in the map. Sentences were of the form The item is X of the item or The item has the item on its X side when items were high-frequency nouns and X was the adjective north, south, east, or(More)
In three experiments, we examined the separate cognitive demands of processing and storage in working memory and looked at how effective the coordination was when items for storage varied in format/modality. A sentence verification task involving arithmetic facts was combined with a span task involving two to six items presented in picture, printed word, or(More)
The authors examined ratings of facial attractiveness, rankings of faces and reasons given by young, middle-aged, and older men and women for young, middle-aged, and older male and female face attractiveness. No support for predictions derived from similarity, interest, and cohort hypotheses was obtained. In support of the expertise hypothesis, young and(More)
This work combines presentation formats to test whether bimodal conditions offer advantages or disadvantages relative to single formats in working memory performance. A dual task that included recall of 3 or 6 items while verifying the accuracy of math sentences was used in 2 experiments. When comparisons were made between single- and dual-format(More)
Four experiments are reported in which participants attempted to remember three or six concrete nouns, presented as pictures, spoken words, or printed words, while also verifying the accuracy of sentences. Hypotheses meant to explain the higher recall of pictures and spoken words over printed words were tested. Increasing the difficulty and changing the(More)
Three experiments were conducted to examine better performance in long-term memory when stimulus items are pictures or spoken words compared to printed words. Hypotheses regarding the allocation of attention to printed words, the semantic link between pictures and processing, and a rich long-term representation for pictures were tested. Using(More)
Two experiments investigated whether the recall advantage of pictures and spoken words over printed words in working memory (Foos & Goolkasian, 2005; Goolkasian & Foos, 2002) could be reduced by manipulating letter case and sequential versus simultaneous presentation. Participants were required to remember 3 or 6 items presented in varied presentation(More)