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Mitochondria contain their own genome, the integrity of which is required for normal cellular energy metabolism. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by normal mitochondrial respiration can damage cellular macromolecules, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and have been implicated in degenerative diseases, cancer, and aging. We developed strategies to(More)
The removal of oxidative damage from Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA is thought to be conducted primarily through the base excision repair pathway. The Escherichia coli endonuclease III homologs Ntg1p and Ntg2p are S. cerevisiae N-glycosylase-associated apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) lyases that recognize a wide variety of damaged pyrimidines (H. J. You, R. L.(More)
The mitochondrial genome is a significant target of exogenous and endogenous genotoxic agents; however, the determinants that govern this susceptibility and the pathways available to resist mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage are not well characterized. Here we report that oxidative mtDNA damage is elevated in strains lacking Ntg1p, providing the first direct(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by endogenous and exogenous sources, cause significant damage to macromolecules, including DNA. To determine the cellular effects of induced, oxidative DNA damage, we established a relationship between specific oxidative DNA damage levels and biological consequences produced by acute H2O2 exposures in yeast strains(More)
Cisplatin is one of the most effective and widely used anticancer agents for the treatment of several types of tumors. The cytotoxic effect of cisplatin is thought to be mediated primarily by the generation of nuclear DNA adducts, which, if not repaired, cause cell death as a consequence of DNA replication and transcription blockage. However, the ability of(More)
Two genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, NTG1 and NTG2, encode proteins with a significant sequence homology to the endonuclease III of Escherichia coli. The Ntg1 and Ntg2 proteins were overexpressed in E.coli and purified to apparent homogeneity. The substrate specificity of Ntg1 and Ntg2 proteins for modified bases in oxidatively damaged DNA was(More)
Cytosine deamination to uracil occurs frequently in cellular DNA. In vitro, RNA polymerase efficiently inserts adenine opposite to uracil, resulting in G to A base substitutions. In vivo, uracil could potentially alter transcriptional fidelity, resulting in production of mutant proteins. This study demonstrates that in nondividing Escherichia coli cells, a(More)
Most cells do not undergo continuous cell division and DNA replication, yet they can still acquire novel RNA mutations that can result in the production of mutant proteins and induce a phenotypic change. All cells are frequently subjected to genotoxic insults that give rise to damaged nucleotides which, similarly to DNA replication, can undergo base(More)
DNA replication stress is an inefficient DNA synthesis process that leads replication forks to progress slowly or stall. Two main factors that cause replication stress are alterations in pools of deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) precursors required for DNA synthesis and changes in the activity of proteins required for synthesis of dNTPs. Ribonucleotide reductase(More)